B RIEF C HAPTER 5 O UTLINE I. Personality A. What Is Personality? 1. Personality is a dynamic concept describing the growth and development of a person’s whole psychological system; it looks at some aggregate whole that is greater than the sum of the parts. 2. Defining Personality a. The text defines personality as the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others. 3. Measuring Personality a. The most important reason managers need to know how to measure personality is that research has shown personality tests are useful in hiring decisions and help managers forecast who is best for a job. b. The most common means of measuring personality is through self-report surveys, with which individuals evaluate themselves on a series of factors. c. Observer-ratings surveys provide an independent assessment of personality. 4. Personality Determinants a. Introduction i. An early argument centered on whether or not personality was the result of heredity or of environment. ii. Personality appears to be a result of both influences. 5. Heredity a. Heredity refers to those factors that were determined at conception. b. The heredity approach argues that the ultimate explanation of an individual’s personality is the molecular structure of the genes, located in the chromosomes. c. Researchers have studied thousands of sets of identical twins that were separated at birth. 6. Personality Traits a. Introduction i. Popular characteristics include shy, aggressive, submissive, lazy, ambitious, loyal, and timid. These are personality traits. ii. Early efforts to identify the primary traits that govern behavior often resulted in long lists that were difficult to generalize from and provided little practical guidance to organizational decision makers. B. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 1. One of the most widely used personality frameworks is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). 2. Individuals are classified as: a. Extroverted or introverted (E or I). b. Sensing or intuitive (S or N). c. Thinking or feeling (T or F). d. Perceiving or judging (P or J). 3. These classifications are then combined into sixteen personality types. For example:
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- Big Five personality traits