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CH 1 Introduction - An Introduction to Anatomy Physiology...

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An Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 1
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Anatomy & Physiology Anatomy – the study of the structure of the human body Physiology – the study of the function of the human body Structures of the human body make possible their functions
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Levels of Organization of the Human Body Subatomic Particles – electrons, protons, and neutrons Atom – smallest particle of a chemical element retaining its properties; made up of nucleus (protons & neutrons) and electrons Molecule – two or more atoms joined by chemical bonds Macromolecule – very large molecule (protein) Organelle – composed of macromolecules & smaller molecules, carries out specific activities in Cell – basic unit of structure and function of the human body Tissue – layer or mass of cells with specific function Organ – structure composed of two or more tissues with a specialized function Organ system – group of organs that function closely together Organism – made up of interacting organ systems
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Characteristics of (Animal) Life Movement – change in position; motion Responsiveness – reaction to a change Growth – increase in body size Reproduction – production of new organisms and new cells Respiration – obtaining oxygen (O 2 ) & removing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) releasing energy from foods Digestion – breakdown of food substances into simpler forms Absorption – passage of substances through membranes and into body fluids Circulation – movement of substances in body fluids Assimilation – changing of absorbed substances into chemically different forms Excretion – removal of wastes produced by metabolic reactions Metabolism – all the chemical reactions in cells; makes possible all of the above
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External and internal environments of living organisms The most abundant living organisms (bacteria, Amoeba & other protists) are unicellular; largely depend on conditions in external environment for life activities Humans are composed of 10 trillion human cells in the internal environment of the human body ( extracellular fluid ) Amoeba feeding
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Homeostasis Homeostasis – maintaining of a stable internal environment through homeostatic control mechanisms, which share 3 components: Receptor(s) - provides information about a condition in the internal environment (thermoreceptors in skin & hypothalamus) Control Center - tells what the condition should be ( set point ) (hypothalamus) Effector(s) - elicits response that changes the condition in the internal environment (skin sweat glands & blood vessels) Most utilize negative feedback
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