Solid_earth1 - The Solid Earth The Solid Earth Multi-part...

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9/14/2015 1 The Solid Earth The primary role of the geologist is to recognize the existence of phenomena before trying to explain them. -- B.M. Keilhau The Solid Earth Multi-part lecture – Plate Tectonics Earth layers Tectonic plates – Minerals – Rocks Rock cycle – Geologic Time Relative dating • Absolute dating Earth’s Layers: Composition The Earth is differentiated – Radioactive decay – Heat of accretion 6,380-km radius Mantle Outer core (liquid) Inner core (solid) ~1300km (808mi) Solid (~5% of core) Metallic (Fe, Ni, S, O) T of the Sun’s surface Size of the moon Inner core ~2000km (1243mi) Liquid Metallic (Fe, Ni, S, O) Very dense, fluid and hot Outer core ~3000km (1864mi) Fe Mg silicates Not as hot Solid but convecting Mantle
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9/14/2015 2 Lithosphere Cooler Strong Brittle Asthenosphere Hotter “Plastic” Water? Upper mantle physical differentiation Mantle Convection Convective churning of mantle rock – Heat forms magma barb2right volcanic eruptions – Heat barb2right tectonic plates and movement Lithosphere Asthenosphere A N E T L M CORE Heat source (Heat source) The Crust “Scum” riding on top Very thin layer thinnest- ocean basins
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