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Chapter 17 lecture and in class review.docx - Chapter 17...

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Chapter 17 lecture notesANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEARTThe heart is the main organ of the cardiovascular system.Average size of a normal heart is about the size of your fist. The heart sitsbetween your lungs behind your sternum, tilted forward & slightly to the leftof your chest. Cone shapedThe heart beats around 100,000 times a day, about 5Liters of blood pumpedq 60 seconds, women can have up to 50% more blood volume duringpregnancyThe heart acts as a pump that squeezes blood out of the heart through bloodvessels- what does blood do- carries O2, carries plasma which inflatesperipheral veins and arteries, sustains BP and lifeThe heart wall consists of 3 layersEpicardium – outer layer of tissueMyocardium – myomuscle, middle layer of the heart; contracts topump bloodEndocardium – the lining of the inner surface of the heart chambersEndocarditis- Inflammation of the lining of the valves of the heartHappens when germs from other parts of the body (the mouth) attacksthe blood steam and travel through the blood to the heartPeople with artificial heart valves are most at risk – may have to go tohospital to be treatedSigns and Symptoms:FeverFatigueChillsMalaiseHeart murmurTreatment - AntibioticsPericardiumperi=around, cardia=heart–a serous, thin, double-layered sacthat encloses the heart—in between the 2 layers is fluid filled pericardialcavity; Functions:Protection – from infections & injuryPrevents displacement of the heart, keeps cardiac positionLubricates the heart – has a small amt of fluid 30-50ml- preventsfriction1
Chapter 17 lecture notesContains pain receptors that can elicit reflex changes in bloodpressure and heart ratePericarditis– inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart.Usually caused by viral infection or MISigns and Symptoms:Chest painFeverShortness of breathFatigueTreatment:Anti-inflammatory and restComplications:Cardiac Tamponade – increased fluid collection in the sac around theheartIt’s a deadly conditionCompresses the heart muscle so ventricles and atrium can’t fillSigns and Symptoms:Low Blood PressureShortness of breathLight headednessHeart rate increases and decreasesSeptum- a thick wall of muscle that separates the Left and Right side of theheartCoronary arteries, veins, & capillaries- make up the vascular system;vessels that supply the heart with blood that carry nutrients and oxygenArteries- carry oxygenated bloodAway from the heart to tissues (thinkAway for A; arteries get smaller the further away they are from the heartVeins- carry deoxygenated blood back to the heartCapillaries-smallest blood vessels; where oxygen, carbon dioxide,nutrients and waste products are exchangedVena Cava- largest vein in the bodyAorta:the largest artery in the body, receives blood from the left2

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