OSTEOPOROSIS & OSTEOMYELITIS - OSTEOPOROSIS Osteoporosis Is...

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OSTEOPOROSIS
Osteoporosis Is a bone disease characterized by a reduction of bone density and a change in bone structure, both of which increase susceptibility to fracture.The normal homeostatic bone turnover is altered: the rate of bone resorption is greater than the rate of bone formation, resulting in a reduced total bone mass
Characteristics of osteoporosisBones become progressively porous, brittle, and fragile; they fracture easily under stresses that would not break normal bone. Osteoporosis frequently results in compression fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine, fractures of the neck and intertrochanteric region of the femur,and Colles’ fractures of the wrist
Bone density in osteoporosis
Characteristics of osteoporosis cont’d…Frequently, postmenopausal women lose height from vertebral collapse. The postural changes result in relaxation of the abdominal muscles and a protruding abdomen (kyphosis & scoliosis). The deformity may also produce pulmonary insufficiency. Many patients complain of fatigue.
Prevention1.Early identification of at-risk teenagers and young adults, 2.calcium intake, 3.participation in regular weight-bearing exercise, and modification of lifestyle (eg, reduced use of caffeine, cigarettes, and alcohol)4.Secondary osteoporosis is the result of medications or other conditions and diseases that affect bone metabolism. Specific disease states (eg, celiac disease,hypogonadism) and medications (eg,corticosteroids, antiseizure medications)
PathophysiologyNormal bone remodeling in the adult results in gradually increased bone mass until the early 30s.Gender, race, genetics, aging, low body weight and body mass index, nutrition, lifestyle choices (eg, smoking, caffeine and alcohol consumption), and physical activity influence peak bone mass and the development of osteoporosis. Note: Although the consequences of osteoporosis (eg, fractures) occur with aging, osteoporosis is not a disease of the elderly. Rather, its onset occurs earlier in life, when bone mass peaks and then begins to decline.
Pathophysiology cont’d…Calcitonin, which inhibits bone resorption and promotes bone formation, is decreased. Estrogen, which inhibits bone breakdown, decreases with aging. On the other hand, parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases with aging, increasing bone turnover and resorption. The consequence of these changes is net loss of bone mass over time.

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