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February 18 - (Listen and look at diagram Clinical view...

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February 18, 2008 (Listen and look at diagram) Clinical view herniated discs the rounded part of vertebrae has black hole where spinal cord passes, the polpous is gelatinous, if an injury occurs the collagen fibers rupture from force put on, gelatin now flows out hole, and it also places pressure on spinal nerve root (problem depending on pressure, it may or not be painful, but either way there is discomfort on body where served by that nerve) to fix: tear out and fill Fig 7.27 axial skeleton A. Rib cage fig 7.32 Beige is bony parts of ribs White area is costal cartilage (hyaline cartilage) connects bony parts of rib to breast bone or sternum 12 pairs of ribs go with the 12 thoracic vertebrae 1. 1 - 7 are true ribs because articulate directly with sternum 2. 8-12 are false ribs- because 8 th ,9 th ,10 th articulate indirectly with sternum by attaching to same strip of costal cartilage that 7 th uses 3. 11 and 12 don’t articulate with sternum-floating ribs a. Little protection from posterior or lateral impact but not a anterior for internal organs’ protection Sternum stops more anterior than ribs (T12 way below) in order to bend over so you don’t puncture organs with the end of the sternum (lose protection to gain flexibility) B. Xyphoid process For CPR, heel of hand is placed 2 finger widths up from xyphoid process for thoracic compressions For the Heimlich, heel of hand is placed 2 finger widths below from xyphoid process for thumb compressions, so residual air is blown out of lungs to blow what is stuck out Chapter 8 I. Appendicular skeleton table 8.1 Fig 8.1 A. Most superior- clavicle (collar bone) and scapula (shoulder blade); scapula only connected to axial skeleton by 15 muscles; shoulder and arms attached to axial skeleton
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by way of clavicle/collar (bone from the top of scapula to top of trunk which joins upper part of sternum) a. connects pectoral girdle to axial skeleton i. not too strong but enormous flexibility b. (very vulnerable and not infrequent thing) top of lungs is right behind clavicle,; if clavicle broken in right place and force in right direction you can puncture a lung, there are also blood vessels below B. Upper limb a. upper arm- humerus b. lower arm- radius and ulna i. in between is interosseous membrane which is also cartilage c.
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