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Topic III - Topic III Development and Revolution from Above...

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Topic III: Development and Revolution from Above: Germany and Japan... Germany Introduction - Germany influenced strongly by surrounding political and economic conditions - unstable military-strategic position made it difficult for Germany to control the nation - as a result, German political organizations competed with one another for territory and people - falling behind the early developers put Germany at a disadvantage - however, this also came with an advantage, as German bureaucracies were capable of skipping traditional practices and only adapted the newest techniques - to compete with the early developers, Germany developed powerful institutions (army and an authoritarian monarchy), identities (nationalism and anti-Semitism), and interests (protectionist industry, labour-repressive agriculture) - in the early twenty-first century, the German government is trying to transform the states complex involvement in the market, especially that of the labour market - basic law (Grundgesetz): formed in 1949 to prevent any re-emergence of authoritarianism Origins of Middle Developer 100 B.C. – A.D. 1800 - early German and Roman cultures blended and grew together - strong cities emerged - Catholic vs. Protestant reformation left Germany religiously divided - *Germany became a middle developer during the seventeenth and eighteenth century because German rulers could not match the successes of the monarchs in France and England - Germany remained politically divided Competing Modern States, 1800-1871 - two most powerful units were Austria-Hungary in the southeast and Prussia in the northeast - 1806, Napolean Bonaparte invaded, combining smaller German states into larger units and establishing a common legal code - German leaders tried to imitate and resist Napolean by building stronger armies and reducing their bureaucracies - two main social and political groups fought for influence in Germany during the nineteenth century 1) Liberals - favoured free markets - separation of the church - constitutional representative government - limit monarchical powers 2) Junkers of Eastern Prussia - owned large tracts of land and supplied grain to much of the world - very democratic - wanted no change - Karl Marx: communist manifesto 2 Key steps in Germanys first modern unification - Prussia defeated Austria-Hungary in a war in 1866 allowing the formation of the North German Confederation in 1867 - Franco-Prussian war of 1870, which Prussia won, allowed a large German state under authoritarian rule Unification Under Authoritarian Leadership, 1871-1919 - late unification gave Germany’s state institutions a great deal of influence over society - this gave Germany an opportunity to reshape society, the economy and politics
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- cultural struggle to make it difficult for Catholic priests to carry out their work, early 1870’s - caused the creation of the center party , which is today one of Germany’s largest political parties - emergence of socialist parties, such as Social Democratic party (SDP) - 1873-1876: Europe-wide depression
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