Topic IV - Topic IV: Communist Revolutions and Pressures...

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Topic IV: Communist Revolutions and Pressures for Democratization: Russia and China INSERT PART THREE OF KOPSTEIN – RUSSIa from micheal KOPSTEIN LICHBACH China: Introduction: - China is one of the world’s oldest civilizations, dating back more than 3000 years. - Imperial China was an agricultural empire by the time it met its first wave of challenges from the West, in the 19 th century. As a result, the Chinese elite were forced to abandon the institutions it put into place. - From that time on, the momentum for political development in China was driven by global competition and the need for national survival. - Late developers tend to put more emphasis on the state’s role in development. - However, the state played two, previously examined roles in the nation’s development. The first was similar to the role the state played in Germany’s development, represented here by the Kuomintang party (KMT). The second, the Chinese Communist Party, chose the Soviet model. - We can separate China’s post 1949 development in three phases: Mao Zedong’s totalitarianism; the rapid economic and political reforms of Deng Xiaoping, and then a technocratic consolidation staged by Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao. - Global competition first compelled China to establish a strong state for the initial push of industrialization, and then pressured it to tinker with the market in order to sustain growth. The resulting liberalization of trade and privatization of property then nurtured social demands for pluralism and a shift of political culture away from collectivization. - Thus, global challenges, foreign examples, and reliance on outside sponsors shaped the political institutions of China. Historical Background: - The Imperial Chinese system was static, staying largely the same from 206 BC to the early 20 th century. - Confucianism, established around 500 BC, laid emphasis on social order, was enshrined as the state ideology and emphasized loyalty to the emperor. - The Chinese civilization’s age, however, turned out to be a mixed blessing: initial successes (technological and social) led to a state of complacency. Once the Westerners came along in the mid 19 th century, they began to exploit China’s markets. - As a result of inept leadership, China could not efficiently respond to the challenge posed by the West, and its decline dragged on for a half century. - In 1912, a revolutionary movement led by Sun Yat-sen overthrew the government, establishing the Republic of China (ROC) in its stead. - Sun established the KMT in 1919, relying on the support of urban intellectuals. He sought Soviet help in establishing military training for his officers, and based himself on the “ Three Principles of the People ”: nationalism, democracy, people’s livelihood.
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- The KMT, at this point, was looking to nonliberal strategies for state-building. -
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course POLI 211 taught by Professor Sabetti during the Spring '08 term at McGill.

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Topic IV - Topic IV: Communist Revolutions and Pressures...

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