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Lesson 4Dennis, Fung Chun-LokFaculty of EducationThe University of Hong Kong[email protected]1Small Class Teaching and SixKey Principles to Increase theEffectiveness of Smaller Classes
1.What is ‘Small Class Teaching’ (SCT)[5 keywords]?2. What are the indicators of success forsmall class teaching?2
What is ‘Small Class Teaching’ (SCT)?[5 Keywords]3
The Role of Teacher in SCT4
The Role of Teacher in SCT5
6Using a Framework ofSix Key Principles to Increase theEffectiveness of Smaller ClassesMaurice GaltonFaculty of Education,University of Cambridge UK
7Six Principles to guideimprovements in practiceClear statement oflearning objectivesExtended questioningduring whole class discussionMoreactivepupilparticipationIncreased cooperationbetween pupils by working inpairs and groupsLess use of corrective andmore informing feedbackMore use of theassessment for learningapproachWhenever possible exploration precedes instruction and examples aresituated in contexts that are meaningful to the pupils
8Justification for the Six Principles1.Empirical: John Hattie’smeta analysisofnumerous studies shows that followingthese principles results in considerablegains in attainment.2.Theories of learning(particularly socialconstructivist ones) predict many of theseempirical findings, particularly the ideathat ‘talk drives learning.’
9Six PrinciplesCURRICULUMLEARNINGOBJECTIVESPEDAGOGYPUPILPARTICIPATIONPAIR/GROUPWORKQUESTIONINGFEEDBACKASSESSMENTASSESSMENTFOR LEARNING
What is the meaning of‘Knowledge’?Types of knowledgeObjectivism (knowledge exists, accurate and precise,true or false)Subjectivism (knowledge exists? subject to change,self-interpretation)Constructivism (knowledge don’t exist, need to createtogether)Creation of Knowledge10
What is ‘Constructivism’ ?1.Objectivismconcerns thereality that operates away from anyconscious thought, judgement or feeling. It underpins positivism byoffering assurance of unambiguous and accurate knowledge of theworld (Crotty, 1998). Historically, the introduction of objectivism isconsidered as a fundamental characteristic of a science (May,2001)--- Discovery, already exists ! (e.g. Science, Newton first law)2.Subjectivismconcernsnature and existence of every objectdepends solely on someone's subjective awareness of it.---- Perceive, maybe or not exist ! (e.g. Social Science, Feng Shui風水)()3.Constructivismconcerns‘reality and knowledge are sociallyconstructed’.----- Create knowledge, not exist yet! (e,g,Hikikomori,隱蔽青年,reclusive teenagers)()Source:global/feng-shui-lecture-of-master-so-dvd-vol-1-cable-tv-program-hong-kong/1004488797-0-0-0-en/info.html
12FIRSTKey Principle: Specifyinglearning objectivesToo oftenobjectives are specified only in termsof the content or task(e.g. To count in tens fromone to a hundred, to memorise the words of asong/poem)Teachers need also toconsider the purposebehind these activities. Is it to facilitate problemsolving (counting), to aid comprehension(recitation), etc?

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Term
Fall
Professor
NoProfessor
Tags
Educational Psychology, University of Hong Kong

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