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Surname 1 Name: Instructor: Course: Date: Appearance and Reality- Russell Bertrand Introduction Bertrand Russell uses the Cartesian technique of doubt in his approach of his subject in Problem of Philosophy and revokes any previous presumption about certain reality and existence in that he develops strong counterarguments against direct realism. Russell begins by asking his reader whether there is any knowledge in the world that is so certain beyond reasonable doubt. He intends to produce the realization that radical doubt brings the most self-evident assumptions in daily lives under reconsideration. He opines that in life, people make many assumptions that when closely scrutinized, so many apparent contradictions are apparent. The contradiction enables us to know what exactly we should believe. In the search for truth and certainty, it is a natural expectation that the point of departure is our present experiences that will serve as the ultimate sources of knowledge. Russell asserts that the what the immediate human experiences make us to know is likely to be very wrong[CITATION Rus97 \p 12 \l 1033 ]. Summarily, the philosophical argument of Russell in his objection to direct realism is that what the sense tell us about an object is not the truth but a mere appearance recognized as reality. Appearance and Reality in Russell’s View
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Surname 2 In his inquiry into the nature of reality vis-à-vis appearance, Russell begins with observations of his immediate surroundings. While sitting on a chair near a table of a certain shape in his room, he states that he can observe sheet of papers that have writings on them. By turning head and looking through the window, he observes buildings, clouds and the sun. He reiterates the assumption that if any other person comes into his room and sits in his position he will make similar observations about the room and the nature from the window view. All the observation will appear of no value to mention as all persons gather a striking observation on the same issues. However, he claims that there are reasonable grounds under which the reality of the observations can be doubted and challenged. In laying bare the ordinary presumptions under scrutiny, Russell bases his philosophical sentiments on a table, an inanimate object, and uses it to substantiate his counterarguments against direct realism. By normal appearances, the table is brown and shiny, smooth, cool and hard to touch and produces a wooden sound when tapped. In his view, Russell argues that anyone who hears this description will have no objection to accepting it upon seeing the table.
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