Earth_Dynamics_Notes_1

Earth_Dynamics_Notes_1 - Introduction I Impact of Geology...

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Introduction I. Impact of Geology in Society A. Geologic Processes - examples 1. Igneous Activity – formation, movement and consolidation of hot liquid rock (magma) intrusive extrusive 2. Earthquakes – shock waves due to sudden shifting of rock masses at depth 3. Mass Wasting – down slope movement of rock and soil due to gravity extrusive 4. Streams – erosion, transport, and deposition of sediment by water moving along a channel extrusive B. Earth Materials 1. Types a. Minerals – naturally occurring crystalline substances, chemically and physically distinctive b. Rocks – aggregates of mineral grains c. Ore Deposits metal burning materials which can be mined at a profit d. Energy Resources – oil, gas, etc. e. Water Resources – surface water, ground water 2. Unequal Distribution of Resources C. Employment of Geologists 1. Mineral exploration and mining 2. Petroleum exploration/ production 3. Environmental investigation a. Pollution problems b. Geological hazards 4. Engineering site evaluations II. Uniformitarian Principal A. Processes operating today operated in the past B. “The present is the key to the past” C. A valid assumption – why? 1. Historical observation 2. Evidence based on uniformitarian principal leads to the same interpretation D. Useful for surface processes III. Geologic Time A. Rates of Geologic Processes 1. Slow – mountain building, rock deformation
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2. Fast – earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes B. Dating Processes in the Geologic Past 1. Relative Geologic Time – sequence in which events took place 2. Absolute Geologic Time – age of events in years IV. Plate Tectonics A. Continental Drift B. Moving Plates C. Divergent Boundary 1. Mid oceanic ridge/rift 2. Seafloor spreading Minerals I. Introduction A. Elements and Minerals B. Examples of Minerals 1. Gold , Diamond (carbon) 2. Quartz (silicon + oxygen) 3. Calcite (calcium + carbon + oxygen) 4. Ruby (aluminum + oxygen) C. Definition – naturally occurring, inorganically formed crystalline solid (orderly arrangement , with a constant chemical composition of atoms II. Methods of Identifying Minerals A. Chemical analysis B. X- rays C. Microscope analysis – optical properties D. Physical properties III. Color A. Constant 1. Gold – intense deep yellow 2. Pyrite – brassy yellow – “fools gold” B. Variable for others C. Cause of colors in minerals 1. Chemical composition – malachite, amethyst 2. Atomic arrangement – diamond vs. graphite 3. Impurities – jasper IV. Luster – quality and intensity of light reflected A. Metallic – pyrite, galena B. Non-Metallic – amethyst, ruby, diamond, Brilliant, Greasy V. Hardness – resistance to scratching
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A. Mineral Hardness Scale 1=talc 10 =diamond B. Standard Materials – fingernail (2.5) penny (3.0) knife blade (5.5) VI. Specific Gravity – weight compared with the weight of an equal
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course GEOL 10445 taught by Professor R.a.heimlich during the Spring '08 term at Kent State.

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Earth_Dynamics_Notes_1 - Introduction I Impact of Geology...

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