Psych 350_Exam1_Crib Sheet.wps

Psych 350_Exam1_Crib Sheet.wps - *Context & History*...

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* Dark Ages to early medieval period: -Children used to be "little adults." -Young males (usually of nobility or children raised by church,) got educated. -Children were rarely grieved upon death. While alive they were seldom shown affection/love. - Europe: Catholic church against abortion; parents used to purposely sleep in bed w/ their babies & roll over in bed to smother them (if child unwanted,) so parents required by Pope/church to sleep separately from children. -Some child laws initially set through church, beginning in Europe. Renaissance: -Changes in European society & cultural practices. -Start to see expressions of grief for children that die. -Toys, books, special children clothes appear. -"Innocence of children" Enlightenment: Beginning of modern science, widespread reading. John Locke: -Empiricism = what you know about the world is what you've learned & observed about the world. -Tabula Rasa = individual human beings are born with no innate or built-in mental content, in a word, "blank", and that their entire resource of knowledge is built up gradually from their experiences and sensory perceptions of the outside world ("nurture" side of the nature vs. nurture debate). Jean Jacques Rousseau: -Innate goodness. -Early experience. ((Both Locke & Rousseau wrote child rearing books for parents.)) Foundations of Developmental Psych: Charles Darwin: -Evolution. -1st systematic studies. Preformation; -Swammerdam claimed to see little animals & people inside sperm. Wolff: -Concept of epigenesist. Wilhelm Preyer: -Embryology. -1st textbook of child development back in late 1800s. -Organ development in embryos. ~Support for epigenesist. Nature vs. Nurture: -Rapid growth of psych, educational studies, & brain studies. Developmental Psych in U.S.: -Industrialization changes U.S. society. -Child abandonment during Great Depression. G. Stanley Hall: -established developmental psych. -promoted genetic basis of development. -ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny. James Mark Baldwin: -1st systematic theory. -stages major reorganizations of thinking. Alfred Binet: -1st intelligence test. Sigmund Freud: -Psychodynamic theory. -Early experiences. Jean Piaget: -Cognitive development. -Highly influential in Europe. John Watson: -Concept of Behaviorism. -Same tools for learning in all organisms. -Dominance of Behaviorism. Modern Development of Psych: -Cognitive revolution. -Developmental research flourishes. -Interdisciplinary & neuroscience research. Applied Developmental Psych: -Media. -Education. -Medicine. -Child rearing. -Public policy. -1 *Experiment Designs * Research Methods: ~Cross-sectional: a researcher observes differences between individuals of different ages at the same time. ~Longitudinal: a researcher observes many individuals born at or around the same time (a cohort ) and carries out new observations as members of the cohort age. This method can be used to draw conclusions about which types of development are universal (or normative
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Psych 350_Exam1_Crib Sheet.wps - *Context & History*...

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