chapter23 - Chapter 23 Electric Fields Electricity and...

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Chapter 23 Electric Fields
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Electricity and Magnetism The laws of electricity and magnetism play a central role in the operation of many modern devices. The interatomic and intermolecular forces responsible for the formation of solids and liquids are electric in nature. Introduction
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Electricity and Magnetism, Some History Chinese Documents suggest that magnetism was observed as early as 2000 BC Greeks Electrical and magnetic phenomena as early as 700 BC Experiments with amber and magnetite 1600 William Gilbert showed electrification effects were not confined to just amber. The electrification effects were a general phenomena. 1785 Charles Coulomb confirmed inverse square law form for electric forces Introduction
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Electricity and Magnetism, More History 1819 Hans Oersted found a compass needle deflected when near a wire carrying an electric current. 1831 Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry showed that when a wire is moved near a magnet, an electric current is produced in the wire. 1873 James Clerk Maxwell used observations and other experimental facts as a basis for formulating the laws of electromagnetism. Unified electricity and magnetism Introduction
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Electricity and Magnetism – Forces The concept of force links the study of electromagnetism to previous study. The electromagnetic force between charged particles is one of the fundamental forces of nature. Introduction
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Electric Charges There are two kinds of electric charges Called positive and negative Negative charges are the type possessed by electrons. Positive charges are the type possessed by protons. Charges of the same sign repel one another and charges with opposite signs attract one another. Section 23.1
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Electric Charges, 2 The rubber rod is negatively charged. The glass rod is positively charged. The two rods will attract. Section 23.1
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Electric Charges, 3 The rubber rod is negatively charged. The second rubber rod is also negatively charged. The two rods will repel. Section 23.1
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More About Electric Charges Electric charge is always conserved in an isolated system. For example, charge is not created in the process of rubbing two objects together. The electrification is due to a transfer of charge from one object to another. Section 23.1
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Conservation of Electric Charges A glass rod is rubbed with silk. Electrons are transferred from the glass to the silk. Each electron adds a negative charge to the silk. An equal positive charge is left on the rod. Section 23.1
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Quantization of Electric Charges The electric charge, q , is said to be quantized. q is the standard symbol used for charge as a variable. Electric charge exists as discrete packets. q = Ne N is an integer e is the fundamental unit of charge | e | = 1.6 x 10 -19 C Electron: q = - e Proton: q = + e Section 23.1
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Conductors Electrical conductors are materials in which some of the electrons are free electrons.
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