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Biopsych Midterm 1 study guide

Biopsych Midterm 1 study guide - Midterm 1 Outline 1...

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Midterm 1 Outline 1: - Biopsychology – studying the biological basis of behavior o How the nervous system works o Behavior in psychology began with the greeks - Hipocretes – early greek physican o Had the idea that the brain was a physical entity that contolled behavior Called monism ( brain is like the body and not the a magical entity) No way to prove it o Went against the idea that spirit controls behavior - Aristotle o Belivevd the mind was different from the brain o Believed the brain controls the body and the mind/soul does not live in the brain o Dualism – seperation between the mind and the brain o Emotions = mind o Physical changes = brain - Descartes – 17 th century French philosopher o Accepted/expanded dualism o One of the first to try and understand human behavior scientifically o Proposed the mechanical model ( hydrolic ) Our body was hydrolic fluids and we when the fluids shifted, we moved o Tried to explain how the brain and mind interact and that we move our bodies because we use our minds o The mind monitored the brain and made decisions o Pineal gland – was manipulated/shifted to produce body movements (like a joystick) - Luigi Galvani – italian physiologist o Discovered that muscle contractions were from electrical contractions o Tested hydrolics model and isolated specific body parts o Decided to play with electrical impulse to see if he could get a contraction from it - Johannes Muller – german physiolgist o Accepted that electric caused movement, but it was not understood where the electrical current came from o Performed experimental ablation – surgically remove parts of the brain/body and see what happens to the body o Determined that the same level of charge = same level of contraction o Defined Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies – nerves carry the same basic message
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The reason we produce differernt behaviors is because the brain is functionally divided, not because the electrical impulse is different One part of the brain stimulates a specific behavior - Pierre Flourens – o continued using ablation technique o systematically tried to map out the brain o determined/documented which parts of the brain contolled specific behavior o used mice brains by damaging parts of it and once it was recovered, recorded how the behavior was effected o behaviors overlapped with different parts of the brain - Paul Broca – first to study human behavior and brain functioning o was a doctor o studied brains after patients died beacsue he was referred a patient who had a stroke and could not talk (“Tan-Tan”), but could do everything else After Tan-Tan’s death, he found a lecision the size of a golfball on the back frontal/front temporal lobe (Broca’s Area) Studied 9 people with the same damage as Tan-Tan after he died - Case study - case study methods involve an in-depth, longitudinal examination of a single instance or event: a case. They provide a systematic way of looking at
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