BSC1005

BSC1005 - BSC1005 Biology Study Guide [Lecture 1-Intro] I....

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BSC1005 Biology Study Guide [Lecture 1-Intro] I. Introduction A. Biology - scientific study of the characteristics of life . B. What characterizes life? 1. Reproduction 2. Energy processing 3. Respond to environment 4. Evolutionary adaptation (long term)-Charles Darwin-19 th century 5. Growth and development (single and multi-cell) 6. Order/organization 7. Regulation ( homeostasis ) C. What do biologists study? There are many levels of biological organization: 1. Atoms 2. Molecules : ex: carbos, proteins, fats, nucleic acid 3. Organelles : ex: nucleus, mitochondria, etc. 4. Cell : the basic unit of life 5. Tissue : group of similar cells 6. Organ : body part consisting of 2 or more tissue properties that weren’t present @ level below 7. Organ System 8. Organism : an individual, living thing 9. Population 10. Community 11. Ecosystem
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12. Biosphere D. Life is characterized by unity and diversity . 1. Unity : all life forms share the same organizing principles 2. Diversity : 1.5e6 (about 1.5 million known/named species) ~290 k plants, ~52 k vertebrates, > 1e6 insects 3. How do we get from unity <---> diversity? Evolution E. How do we study biology? 1. Reduction : breaking down of complex biological process into smaller more manageable processes that we can stud = reduces the “variables” BUT…this can’t give you the big picture! 2. Systems biology : attempts to “model” the behavior of a whole biological process; requires a lot of technology—mathematical modeling, computing power. (vs. standard “bench work”) 3. The process of scientific inquiry a) Discovery/descriptive science : relies on careful observations b) Hypothesis-based science : seeks to answer a specific question, relies on scientific method 1) Make an observation 2) Ask a question 3) Formulate a hypothesis—a tentative answer to a question; must be testable . 4) Design an experiment; controls are important 5) If necessary modify hypothesis [Lecture 2-Atoms and Molecules] I. Matter : has mass, occupies space. Mass does not = weight.
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A. Elements : cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical reactions. 1. Each element has its own symbol Ex: H=Hydrogen C=Carbon Na=Sodium 2. There are 92 naturally occurring elements, BUT only 25 are required for life. a) 4 elements make up 96% of living matter: H, C, N, O (know this!!!) b) Remaining 4% P, Ca, K, Na, Cl, Mg, S c) Rest are required in trace amounts B. Atoms : the smallest unit of an element that still retains the properties 1. Composed of protons (+ charged), neutrons (neutral), electrons (- charged) 2. Protons and Neutrons = nucleus Electrons orbit the nucleus In most atoms, # protons = # electrons Therefore, no net charge [when # protons does not = # electrons- ion ] 3. Sizes: protons and neutrons: 1.7e-24 g = 1 Dalton = 1 atomic mass unit (amu) Electrons: ~ 1/2000 th size of proton 4. Atoms of the same element have the same # protons = atomic number Ex: Helium – 2 protons Therefore, atomic # = 2 Atomic mass : mass protons + (mass electrons) + mass neutrons Ex: 4 2 He mass ~ 4 Daltons Protons: 2 Neutrons: 4 – 2 = 2
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BSC1005 - BSC1005 Biology Study Guide [Lecture 1-Intro] I....

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