1.Why are information systems vulnerable to destruction, error, and abuse?Information systems are vulnerable because they are designed to be open systems which makes them easily accessible to outsiders. Hackers can unleash denial-of-service (DoS) attacks or penetrate corporate networks, causing serious system disruptions. Wi-Fi networks can easily be penetrated by intruders using sniffer programs to obtain an address to access the resources of the network. Computer viruses and worms can disable systems and Web sites. The dispersed nature of cloud computing makes it difficult to track unauthorized activity or to apply controls from afar. Software presents problems because software bugs may be impossible to eliminate and because software vulnerabilities can be exploited by hackers and malicious software. 2.List and describe the most common threats against contemporary information systems.The most common threats against contemporary information systems include: technical, organizational, and environmental factors compounded by poor management decisions.*Technical: Unauthorized access, introducing errors*Communications: Tapping, sniffing, message alternation, theft and fraud, radiation*Corporate servers: Hacking, viruses and worms, theft and fraud, vandalism, denial of service attacks*Corporate systems: Theft of data, copying data, alteration of data, hardware failure, andsoftware failure. Power failures, floods, fires, or other natural disasters can also disrupt computer systems.*Poor management decisions: Poorly designed safeguards that protect valuable data from being lost, destroyed, or falling into the wrong hands.