geo final review

geo final review - Gea1000 N Africa and Mid East The Sahara...

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Gea1000 N. Africa and Mid East - The Sahara Desert 3,500 sq miles World’s largest hot desert World’s 2 nd largest desert Extreme temperatures o Daytime: Up to 136ºF o Nighttime: As low as 22ºF Biologically diverse Highest point o Mt. Koussi in the Tibesti Mountains, Chad o 11,204 ft. Lowest Point o Qattara Depression in Egypt o 436 below sea level -The Atlas Mountains Jbel Toubkal – Highest peak at 13,665 ft. 1,500 miles long o Runs through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia Divides the Mediterranean and Atlantic Coastlines from the Sahara Desert - Maghreb – ‘The Place of Sunset’ Doesn’t consider themselves as Middle Easterner The religion of the region is almost entirely muslim ‘Berber’ languages spoken almost exclusively o 8 closely linked Afro-Asiatic languages Kabyles Chawis Rifains Touaregs Amazighs Sahara Berbers Chenwa Shleuhs -The Fertile Crescent River Basins o The Nile River Basin o The Tigris River Basin o The Euphrates River Basin o The Jordan River Basin Still home to 120 million people today o Roughly a quarter of the total Middle Eastern population - Islam (Submission to God) Dominant religion in this region – 93% are Muslim Prophet Muhammad – 7 th century AD Medina, Mecca, and Jerusalem Qur’an (Koran)
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o The literal word of God World’s 2 nd largest religion o Around 1.4 billion adherents Five Pillars of Islamic Practice o Shahadah: Allah as God; Muhammad as his prophet o Salah: Daily prayer 5 times a day toward the Kaaba o Sawn: Obligatory fasting Daylight hours of Ramadan o Zakat: Obligatory almsgiving Almost like a tax o Hajj: A pilgrimage to Mecca At least once in your life o The Kaaba Housed in the Al – Masjid al – Haram Mosque in Mecca o Largest and holiest site in the Islamic world - The Ottoman Empire (1299 – 1922) Religious tolerance Defeated Byzantine Empire around 1453 Constantinople (Istanbul) Lost power with Industrial Revolution and defeated after WWII - European Domination North African colonization o France in Algeria o British in Egypt o Race to beat everyone else Protectorate o Local rulers remain in place, but major decisions made in Europe - Population Patterns 100 million more people than the U.S. Desert virtually uninhabited Demographically, fertility rates are falling as women gain education and access to prevention, but they’re still high. - Environmental Issues Desertification o The ecological changes that convert non-desert lands into desert Salinization o The accumulation of salts from water evaporating, also leads to desertification - Western Sahara Capital is Rabat, Morocco POLISARIOS o Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic UN referendum – 1991 - Sudan Largest country in Africa
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Capital: Khartoum Religion: Muslim North/South civil wars o British influences Darfur conflict - Israel Capital: Jerusalem Religion: Judaism Language: Hebrew - The Kurds
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