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07-Protein - Important Fatty Acids O H2 C H3C C H2 H2 C C...

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1 Important Fatty Acids H 3 C H 2 C C H 2 H 2 C C H 2 H 2 C C H 2 H 2 C C H 2 H 2 C C H 2 H 2 C C H 2 H 2 C C H 2 H 2 C C H 2 C H 3 C H 2 C C H 2 H 2 C C H 2 H 2 C C H 2 H 2 C C H C H H 2 C C H 2 H 2 C C H 2 H 2 C C H 2 H 2 C C OH O H 3 C H 2 C C H 2 H 2 C C H 2 H C H C C H 2 H C H C C H 2 H 2 C C H 2 H 2 C C H 2 H 2 C C H 2 C O OH H 3 C H 2 C C H H 2 C C H C H H 2 C C H C H H 2 C C H 2 H 2 C C H 2 H 2 C C H 2 H 2 C C O OH O OH ! 9 ! 6 ! 3 Stearic 18:0 Oleic 18:1 Linoleic 18:2 Linolenic 18:3 Fats&Oils 16:0 18:0 18:1 18:2 18:3 Soybean 11 4 22 53 8 Canola 4 2 56 26 10 Sunflower 6 5 20 69 - Corn 13 3 31 52 1 Olive 10 2 78 7 1 Palm 44 4 40 10 - Lard 27 11 44 11 - Tallow 27 7 48 2 - Average Fatty Acid Composition of Fats & Oils (% by wt) Unsaturated fatty acids are unstable with oxygen Oxidation: food lipid oxidation biological oxidation (aging & disease) The reaction with oxygen will break a unsaturated fatty acid into smaller molecules which have more aroma (smell) than the original fatty acid. H 3 C H 2 C C H H 2 C C H C H H 2 C C H C H H 2 C C H 2 H 2 C C H 2 H 2 C C H 2 H 2 C C O OH O 2 H 3 C H 2 C C H H 2 C C H O + C H H 2 C C H C H H 2 C C H 2 H 2 C C H 2 H 2 C C H 2 H 2 C C OH O O
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2 The more unsaturated the fatty acid is (that is the more double bonds): the more reactive it is with oxygen. Rate of oxidation 18:3 > 18:2 > 18:1 >> 18:0 Biological Oxidation In humans Aging and various diseases are related to the oxidation of lipid compounds. Antioxidants Interest in retarding food and biological oxidation Compounds which slow or retard lipid oxidation are called Antioxidants. Can natural or synthetic Natural Antioxdants Vitamin E Various plant compounds which often find their way into foods e.g. Red Wine
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3 Lipid Oxidation Paradox Saturated fatty acids (no double bonds) Slow to oxidize (good) Increased risk of heart disease (bad) (correlates with high blood cholesterol content) Polyunsaturated fatty acids (multiple double bonds) Rapidly oxidized (bad) Decreased risk of heart disease (good) Monounsaturated fatty acids good! (Oleic acid) New York City passes trans fat ban NYC to restaurants: No trans fat NEW YORK - The Board of Health voted Tuesday to make New York the nation’s first city to ban artery-clogging artificial trans fats at restaurants — from the corner pizzeria to high-end bakeries. Restaurants had to eliminate artificial trans fats from all of their foods by July 2008. Soy Bean Oil and Hydrogenation Soy bean oil contains a lot of poly- unsaturated fatty acids (which makes it an oil) To make a fat out of soy bean oil, the number of double bonds must be reduced. That is: these unsaturated fatty acids should be saturated with hydrogen! Hydrogenation C C H H + H 2 C C H H H H Unsaturated Saturated Hydrogen Gas
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4 Margarine By the 1860s, butter had become so in demand in France that Emperor Napoleon III offered prize money for an inexpensive substitute to supplement France's inadequate butter supplies. A French chemist claimed the prize with the invention of margarine in 1869.
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