05_06-Fats+_+Oils

05_06-Fats+_+Oils - Animal Plant Fats Oils aka Lipids Major...

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1 Animal & Plant Fats & Oils aka Lipids Working definition: Organic compounds (CHO) that do not mix with Water We will use the term lipids “mostly” Major food lipids ! Triglycerides ! Fat soluble vitamins: A, D, E, K ! Cholesterol ! Some plant pigments like beta-carotene ! Flavor or volatile lipids (small molecules which are soluble in lipids) Roles of lipids — lecture topics ! Energy source ! Texture ! Essential fatty acids ! Fat soluble vitamins: A, D, E, K ! Cholesterol ! Some plant pigments like beta-carotene ! Flavor and flavorings ! Heat transfer (“frying”) Caloric Values ! Physicists ! definition: ! 1 calorie raises 1 gram of water 1°C ! 1 kcal raises 1000 grams of water 1°C ! (actually, modern physicists use Joules instead of calories, but most nutritionists still use nomenclature related to calories)
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2 Carbohydrates 4 kcals/gram Proteins 4 kcals/gram Lipids 9 kcals/gram So we can say that Lipids have twice the amount of Kcalories as Carbohydrates* or Proteins. *digestible carbohydrates Caloric Values Caloric Values ! Nutritionists use the term Calorie (big C) to imply kcal ! Or in Europe - welcome to the metric system! ! 4.2 joules = 1 calories or 4.2 kilojoule (kj) = 1 kcal = 1 Cal Recommendations for Fat Intake ! Recommendations of the USDA“Dietary Guidelines for Americans” ref: fats ! Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol ! Eat less than 30% of total calories from fats and oils An example of ‘low fat’ franks ! 3% fat (by weight) ! 20% of calories from fat
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3 Role of Fats ! Energy source ! Texture Texture ! Textural modification in foods (Shortens protein network in bread & cake doughs) ! Smooth and moisten (baking) ! Crumbly textures ! Coatings ! Flavorful coatings ! Water resistant coatings Roles of Fats ! Energy source ! Texture ! Adipose tissue ! E.g. Marbling of meat ! USDA grading is based on fat distribution
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4 Prime Choice Select Standard Utility Cutter Roles of Fats ! Energy source ! Texture ! Essential fatty acids Essential fatty acids ! Are essential to proper metabolism ! Cannot be synthesized by the body ! (or at least in sufficient amounts) ! Linoleic ( " 6) ! Linolenic ( " 3) Roles of fats ! Energy source ! Texture ! Essential fatty acids ! Fat soluble vitamins: A, D, E, K ! Cholesterol ! These topics are for nutrition classes…
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5 Sources of Cholesterol ! From foods we eat - Cholesterol is found in animals or meat. Cholesterol does not occur in plants. ! Made in the body - Related to genetics (the family tree) also related to the types of fatty acids consumed in our diet.
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