04-ComplexCarbs

04-ComplexCarbs - Di- & Complex Carbohydrates...

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1 Maltose (disaccharide) ! Glucose-glucose ! Other common names: malt sugar ! Produced by hydrolysis of starch ! energy source in fermentations ! Not very sweet Lactose ! A disaccharide from mammalian milks ! Composed of glucose galactose ! Not very sweet Dairy History ! Derivation of common words in dairying ! Latin lac = milk ! Led to lactation, lactose ! !"#" = gala = milk ! Led to galaxis to galaxy to galactose 2.17m
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2 Milk – Consumption ! Only humans: ! Consume milk of other species ! Consume milk after weaning ! Northern Europeans are the primary group that: ! Consumes milk as adults ! Many other humans: ! become lactose intolerant ! decrease and lose production of LACTASE and cannot digest lactose. LACTOSE INTOLERANCE ! Most of the world’s adults cannot effectively digest lactose LACTOSE INTOLERANCE ! Most of the world’s adults cannot effectively digest lactose ! McGee: “Ethnic chauvinism” LACTOSE INTOLERANCE — Getting around the problem… ! Use of lactase enzymes ! Directly in processing ! Naturally with fermented dairy products ! Dietary supplements ! (“Lact-Aid”)
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3 For every PhD there is an ! Other things in dairy might cause digestion discomfort (such as proteins) ! However, regardless of what the causal agents, the results can sometimes be uncomfortable. 1.53 Oligosaccharides ! Raffinose and stachyose found in legumes and other plants ! consist of sucrose attached to a galactose unit ! Not hydrolyzed in vivo ! fermented by microorganisms in GI tract ! produce undesirable symptoms ! Oligosaccharides in milk called “ bifidus factor Carbohydrate - Examples ! ! Carbohydrates Seeds as Foods Plant’s embryonic material with food 10,000 years ago, the beginning of Agriculture The main component of seeds is starch which supplies the average person 60% of their daily calories. dietary protein in the average diet
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4 Seeds Grains –cereals are all plants from the grass family. They produce many tiny dry fruits (grains). Legumes are plants that bear several seeds in a pod. Can be eaten as a vegetable before drying Nuts comprise a category that includes the seeds of fleshly or one seeded fruits Grains Over 8,000 species in the grass family Cereals- wheat, barley, rice, millet, Production levels: wheat > corn = rice Wheat extent for livestock feed and seed extent for livestock feed and seed • Developed from a type of wild grass of Asia Developed from a type of wild grass of Asia Minor Minor • Cultivation originated in 10,000 B.C. making Cultivation originated in 10,000 B.C. making it the oldest cereal crops it the oldest cereal crops "Whole grains consist of the starchy endosperm, germ and bran.”
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04-ComplexCarbs - Di- & Complex Carbohydrates...

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