MUS 4 - Professor McAllister MUS 4 Music Terms Pitch: a...

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Professor McAllister MUS 4 Music Terms Pitch : a single sound Melody : a succession of single pitches, generally the most recognized part of the composition Chord : group of pitches played simultaneously Harmony : pitches (usually chords) that accompany the melody Register : the relative height or lowness of sound in relation to a particular instrument (high note=high register) Dynamics : the relative loudness or softness of sound Rhythm : - Beat : Underlying pulse of a piece - Meter : pattern of beats that often is recurring - Tempo : speed at which the music goes (oftentimes the beat speed) Phrase : a section of melody comparable to a sentence in prose Motive : a short recurring melodic or rhythmic figure Consonance : a sound which is at repose (sounds stable or restful) Dissonance : a sound which does not sound restful like a consonance (sound like it should resolve elsewhere) Timbre : tone color of a sound Scale/Mode : a collection of pitches which provide the melody and/or harmony of a composition Notation : written language of music Staff notation : system of 5 lines upon which all notation information s placed Composition/Piece : terminology used instead of ‘song’ Form : large, overall structure of a piece Ancient and Medieval Music Greek: Epitaph of Seikilos [1 st century B.C.] o monophonic (contains only melody) o largely vocal o instruments accompanying include lyre, psaltery o found on a tombstone o clear rhythmic notation Europe 0-1000 A.D. Chant – Hildegard von Bingen ~ Ave Generosa [1150] o Plain-chant, Gregorian chant o Used in mass and divine offices (8 times a day monks and nuns get together and pray) o Exclusively vocal o Monophonic o Earliest manuscripts 9 th century o Had a 4-line staff o Melodies generally very smooth ( conjunct ) o Flexible beat (no real steady rhythm) o Syllabic: one note per syllable o Neumatic: two to five notes per syllable o Melismatic: many notes per syllable o Different length stanzas o Voice is wider-ranging than an octave (range or span of notes) higher pitches emphasizes important parts and words, each stanza begins and ends on the same note
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o Tonic: pitch or note which is the anchor/home base, provides a sense of organization o Polyphony: slow piece of chant to drone and place a faster melody on top o Hildegard von Bingen -Nun who lived in a convent -Left convent to undertake preaching tours -Visionary, drew and wrote text -Cybil of the Ryne -1098-1179m 12 th century Renaissance, first universities, Greek writing available in Latin, Crusades = scientific and medical knowledge -Uneducated yet highly regarded -Wrote 77 different pieces, mostly songs Organum – Léonin ~ Viderunt Omnes (1170) o Notre Dame School o Léonin and Perotin were considered masters of organum o 12 th century o Ternary division of the beat (three-fold) o Tenor : drone, held part of the piece, direction quotation of chant o Discant : portion of mostly note against note (om nes) Middle Ages: Development of Polyphony and Ars Nova
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course MUS 4 taught by Professor Mcallister during the Fall '08 term at UCSD.

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MUS 4 - Professor McAllister MUS 4 Music Terms Pitch: a...

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