12/1/21, 12:42 PMSeeing – PSYC 100: Principles of Psychology F2123. SeeingOriginal chapter by Charles Stangor with adaptations by JenniferWalinga, adapted by the Queen’s University Psychology DepartmentWe encourage students to use the “Three-Step Method” for support in their learning. Please ±ndour version of the Three-Step Method, created in collaboration with Queen’s Student AcademicSuccess Services, at the following link:You’ll notice that this chapter looks a bit different from our earlier chapters. A bene±t of an OpenAccess textbook is that we have the ability to source and adapt content written by experts globallythat address issues that are important for our course. This chapter is from the text “Introduction toPsychology–1st Canadian Edition.” You can ±nd the bookhereLearning ObjectivesIdentify the key structures of the eye and the role they play in vision.Summarize how the eye and the visual cortex work together to sense and perceive the visualstimuli in the environment, including processing colours, shape, depth, and motion.
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12/1/21, 12:42 PMSeeing – PSYC 100: Principles of Psychology F212/23the process of transduction. Once this visual information reaches the visual cortex, it is processedby a variety of neurons that detect colours, shapes, and motion, and that create meaningful per-ceptions out of the incoming stimuli.The air around us is ±lled with a sea ofelectromagnetic energy:pulses of energy waves that cancarry information from place to place. Electromagnetic waves vary in theirwavelength—the dis-tance between one wave peak and the next wave peak —with the shortest gamma waves beingonly a fraction of a millimeter in length and the longest radio waves being hundreds of kilometerslong. Humans are blind to almost all of this energy —our eyes detect only the range from about400 to 700 billionths of a meter, the part of the electromagnetic spectrum knownas thevisible spectrum.The Sensing Eye and the Perceiving Visual CortexAs you can see in Figure 5.7, “Anatomy of the Human Eye,” light enters the eye through thecornea,a clear covering that protects the eye and begins to focus the incoming light.The light thenpasses through thepupil,a small opening in the centre of the eye. The pupil is surrounded by theiris,the coloured part of the eye that controls the size of the pupil by constricting or dilating in re-sponse to light intensity. When we enter a dark movie theatre on a sunny day, for instance, mus-cles in the iris open the pupil and allow more light to enter. Complete adaptation to the dark maytake up to 20 minutes.