paper 2 - Observation, Gender, and Exercise 1 The Effect of...

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Observation, Gender, and Exercise 1 The Effect of Observation and Gender on Non-Organized Exercise Julian Chalek, Martha Fung, and Lauren Kaplan
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Observation, Gender, and Exercise 2 The study investigates the relationship between overt observation and gender (IV’s) on non-organized exercise (DV), by recording the number of males and females taking stairs or an escalator in an overt observation condition, and a covert observation condition. The hypotheses are that men are more likely than women to take the stairs, people are more likely to take the stairs when being overtly observed, and under overt observation gender differences will be emphasized and more men will take the stairs whereas less women will take the stairs. Researchers found that people were more likely to take the stairs in the overt condition, male and female subjects used the stairs in the same amount, and males used the stairs more in the over condition while females used the stairs more in the covert condition.
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Observation, Gender, and Exercise 3 Males and females tend to react differently to observation in situations involving physical activity. Men perform better when being overtly observed, while women perform worse when being overtly observed. Whether this is due more to the effects of gender stereotypes, or innate differences between genders is open to debate. Previous research uses organized sport activities to show the differences between males and females in this area. In a study by Fredrickson and Harrison (2005), performance in a sport activity was measured by the speed and distance of a thrown ball. The presence of a male observer caused adolescent girls to throw the ball slower and a shorter distance, while the presence of a male observer caused adolescent boys to throw the ball faster and longer. Previous studies have also shown that gender differences are highly correlated with voluntary participation in physical activity (Viljalmsson & Thorlindsson, 1998). Women tend to participate less than men in voluntary sports clubs This study poses a new question in the area of gender and differences in reaction to overt observation in physical activity situations. Do different reactions between genders in physical sports situations translate to non-organized physical activity in public spaces? In this study, researchers decided to record how many people take the stairs versus the escalator in a subway stop, comparing differences between overt and covert observation types, and gender. As men are more likely to participate in voluntary sports clubs that women, researchers expect that men are more likely to take the stairs than women. Overall, People are expected to be more likely to take the stairs when being overtly observed. The
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Observation, Gender, and Exercise 4 fact that female subjects threw the ball too softly when being watched suggests that they were nervous because they wanted to impress the male. Researchers expect that this need
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paper 2 - Observation, Gender, and Exercise 1 The Effect of...

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