Chapter 9 questions - Short-Answer Questions for Chapter 9...

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Short-Answer Questions for Chapter 9 Module 9.1 Rhythms of Waking and Sleeping 1. Endogenous cycles a. What do we know about the factors that do, or do not, initiate migration in birds? b. What are endogenous circannual rhythms? Endogenous circadian rhythms? How consistent are circulation rhythms within individuals in a given environment? Between individuals? c. How can circadian rhythms be demonstrated experimentally? What are some bodily and behavioral changes that occur in circadian rhythms? d. How easily can humans adapt to a new cycle length? What are the limits of adaptation? 2. Mechanisms of the biological clock a. What sorts of attempted interference with the biological clock were not effective? b. What brain structure is the source of the circadian rhythms? What is its relationship to the visual system? c. What is the evidence that the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generates rhythms itself? d. What happened when SCN tissue from hamsters with a mutant gene for a 20-hour rhythm were transplanted into normal humans? e. What two genes, discovered in Drosophila (fruit flies), govern circadian rhythms? How do they work? How common is this mechanism in other animals? f. What is melatonin? From which gland is it secreted? When does increased secretion of melatonin occur? 3. Setting and resetting the biological clock a. What is a zeitgeber? What is the most effective zeitgeber for land animals? For many marine animals? b. Is it easier to cross time zones going east or west? Why? c.
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Chapter 9 questions - Short-Answer Questions for Chapter 9...

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