cell outline - Cell Structure and Organelles Lecture 1 Cell...

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Cell Structure and Organelles Lecture 1
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Cell Theory: States that all organisms are made up of cells. Cells come only from pre-existing cells.
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Prokaryotic Cell: Bacterial Lacks a nucleus and most of the other organelles found in eukaryotic cells. Very small (1-10 e m length; 0.7-1.5 e m width). Has a chromosome, but it is contained in a nucleoid, which has no nuclear envelope.
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Eukaryotic Cell: Of animal/plant origin. Has a “true nucleus” enclosed in a double-membrane envelope. Has a cytoplasm organized into membrane-bound organelles suspended in the cytoplasmic matrix. Large (2 - 40 e m).
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Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic Cells Item Eukaryotic Prokaryotic Size Large Small Cell Division Mitotic Non-mitotic Cytoskeleton Present Absent Inracellular Movement Yes No Organelles Present Yes No Nucleus Present Yes No
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Animal vs. Plant Cells Item Animal Plant Cell Wall Present No Yes Vacuole Present No Yes Lysosomes Present Yes No Chloroplasts Present No Yes
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Protoplasm: Considered to be all cellular material in general.
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Cytoplasm: Protoplasm (or cellular material) minus the nucleus. Has 2 major compartments: Hydrophobic membrane system Hydrophilic cytoplasmic matrix
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Hydrophobic membrane system: “Water Hating” Covers the cell and encloses the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and golgi body complex.
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Hydrophilic cytoplasmic matrix (cytosol): “Water Loving” Rich in nutrients, water-soluble enzymatic, and structural proteins. Glycolytic enzymes are found in the cytoplasmic matrix (for glycolysis).
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Microtubules, Microfilaments, Intermediate Filaments: Provide a cytoskeleton in the cytoplasmic matrix which provides cell structure and assists in cell movement.
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Microtubules: Essential in distributing chromosomes to daughter cells during cell division and movement of proteins within the cell.
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