assignment 11

assignment 11 - Sametra Williams Enrollment #: 646028...

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Sametra Williams Enrollment #: 646028 December 16, 2008 Assignment 11 1. The goal of a reproductive management program should be to have each cow calve every 12 months. This is important because it will allow for profitable milk production and genetic improvement (reproductive efficiency). This will allow for more money (in pocket) for the dairyman and less money will be spent on replacement heifers. 2. The best way to monitor the rate of reproductive efficiency of dairy herds is to have accurate and adequate records so that one or more of these measures can be identified and corrective measures can be implemented if necessary. 3. The losses incurred by dairymen as a result of failure to maintain a high degree of reproductive efficiency are low milk production, mastitis, and poor reproduction/efficiency. 4. The primary reproductive organ of the bull is the testicles. 5. Sperms are produced in seminiferous tubles and are stored in the epididymis. 6. The four accessory sex glands that provide fluid to sperm at time of ejaculation are: a. Ampullae b. The seminal vesicles c. The prostate gland d. Cowper’s gland 7. The function of these fluids from the accessory sex glands are that the fluids from these glands serve as a medium for sperm transport and sperm activation and provide a supply of nutrients for the sperm. 8. Ejaculate collected from the bull is made up of a mixture of sperms (20%) and seminal fluids (80%). The following are criteria for evaluating semen collected from bulls: a. Volume of semen per ejaculate (varies from 2 ml to 15 ml) b. Sperm concentration (1-3 billion per ml) c. Percent motility (varies from 0% -85%; average is 70%) 9. The two hormones from the anterior pituitary that control the development and function of the male and female reproductive system are: the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and the luteinizng hormone (LH). In the males, FSH initiates activity of the seminiferous tubules and stimulates production of sperms, while LH controls endocrine activity of the interstitial cells and stimulates the production of testosterone by these cells. In the female, FSH initiates the development of the ovarian follicle, and the LH together with the FSH stimulates maturation of the follicle. The LH surge stimulates the rupture of the follicle. 10. The function of the female in successful reproduction is more complex than the bull because the female’s role continues after fertilization. A Graafian follicle in the ovary develops, and within it an egg or ovum is formed. At maturity, the follicle ruptures to release the egg, which is then picked up by the infundibulum and delivered to the site of fertilization (the oviduct or fallopian tube). 11. Define:
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assignment 11 - Sametra Williams Enrollment #: 646028...

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