assignment 12

assignment 12 - Sametra Williams Enrollment #: 646028...

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Sametra Williams Enrollment #: 646028 Assignment 12 December 22, 2008 1. Define: a. Ruminant: animals with a polygastric system. b. Non-ruminant: animals with a simple monogastric system and monogastric, cecum system. c. Roughage: feeds that are high in fiber and low in total digestible nutrients. d. Concentrate: feeds that are low in fiber and high in total digestible nutrients. e. Ration: amount of feed (roughage and concentrate) given to an animal during a 24- hour period. f. Balanced ration: a ration that is balanced in terms of nutrients: energy, protein, calcium, and phosphorus. g. Complete ration: the roughage and concentrate components of the ration are mixed or blended together before feeding. h. Hardware diseases: heavy material from the reticulum which may penetrate the pericardium or heat sac; a condition where there is no treatment. i. Papillae: finger-like projections which lines the rumen, which increases absorption. j. Villi: small finger-like projections which increases the absorptive surface of the small intestines. 2. The two major groups of livestock and poultry based on their gastrointestinal tract are ruminants and non-ruminants. Ruminants: has a compound stomach (four compartments, delay compartment, and pregastric fermentation) and efficient utilization of fibrous feeds (i.e. cattle, sheep, goats, deer, etc.). Non-ruminant: has a monogastric or simple stomach
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assignment 12 - Sametra Williams Enrollment #: 646028...

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