assignment 13

assignment 13 - 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Sametra Williams...

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Sametra Williams Enrollment #: 646028 Assignment 13 December 30, 2008 1. The two major groups of feeds for dairy cattle are roughages and concentrates. Roughages are feeds that are high in fiber (bulky) and relatively low in digestable energy (i.e., total digestible nutrients (TDN) or net energy (NE)). Concentrations are feeds that are low in fiber and generally high in digestible nutrients. 2. The uses and roles of roughages as the base in providing feed for dairy cattle are: a. Forages are a source of nutrients. b. A factor in rumen buffering. c. The major source of cud chewing. d. Essential to insure the normal health and function of the rumen. 3. Forage quality is of great importance because roughage is bulky and the animal has only a limited capacity for feed, forages must be of top quality for best results. 4. The two major categories into which roughage can be group are: a. Succlulent Roughage: (examples listed below) i. Haylage/baleage (50-55% DM) ii. Silage (30-35% DM) iii. Soilage (20-25% DM) iv. Pasture (20-25% DM) b. Dry Roughage: i. Hay (85-90% DM) 5. Describe: a. Pasture: plants, such as grass, that are grown for feeding or grazing or forages that are harvested by the animal. b. Soilage: (or zero grazing) is the practice of cutting and chopping fresh, green roughage daily from the field and feeding it to animals in dry lot or confinement. c. Silage: the end result of preservation of a crop under conditions suitable to produce sufficient acid to preserve the mass. d. Haylage: low-moisture silage; cut and wilted grass and legume crops. e. Baleage: results from round hay bales containing 65% moisture that are/can be sealed in air-tight (oxygen-free) plastic wrap. f. Hay: refers to grasses and legumes that are harvested, dried, and stored at 85% to 90% DM (10-15% water) 6. The changes the dairymen must be familiar with that takes place in quality parameters as the plant matures are: a. Increase in yield of forage DM per unit of land. b. Increases in the percentages of DM and crude fiber. c. Reduction in the percentages of crude protein, minerals, and vitamins. d. Decline in palatability and digestibility, thus reduction in nutrient intake and animal performance. 7. The four advantages of using pasture as a source of feed for dairy cattle are: a. The use of pasture as feed is labor efficient. Cows harvest the forage, so there are fewer labor and equipment costs. b. Land not suitable for other crops can be used for pasture.
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c. Pasture is usually a very inexpensive source of nutrients. d. The use of pasture to feed is especially adapted to smaller herds. **The disadvantages are that it is very difficult to provide animals with uniform quantity and quality of feed year round and pasture quality is variable and subject to rapid change.** 8. The use of pasture as a source of forage for dairy cows has declined over the years because herds have increased in size. The increased size of herds requires a more intense
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This note was uploaded on 02/03/2009 for the course DARY 1048 taught by Professor Jenny during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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assignment 13 - 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Sametra Williams...

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