CN1-Introduction - Introduction 1 Solid-state devices...

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1 1 Introduction 2 Solid-state devices typically consist of “semiconductors” (intermediate conductivity) in combination with metals (very high conductivity) and insulators (very low conductivity). Critically , the conductivity of the semiconductor(s) and/or semiconductor devices can be altered over orders of magnitude (!) by ¾ introduction of impurity atoms (called dopants) ¾ voltage/electric-field-induced charge carrier accumulation or depletion (switching!) ¾ incident light (optical detection, switching!)
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2 3 Can even vary the type of charge (current) carrier : ¾ negatively charged electrons, or ¾ positively charged (quasi-particle) “holes” (to be discussed (TBD)) … which is what puts the “C” (for “complimentary”) in “CMOS.” Can vary conductivity very (!) quickly via application of voltages or light signals: GHz, 10’s of GHz, even 100’s of GHz (1GHz = 10 9 cycles/second) (where, for comparison, your heart will beat ~3 · 10 9 times in your lifetime if you live to a ripe old age.) Can convert electrical signals/energy to light
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CN1-Introduction - Introduction 1 Solid-state devices...

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