CN4-Atomic structure

CN4-Atomic structure - Atomic structure and the Periodic...

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1 1 Atomic structure and the Periodic Table 2 Outline ± Introduction ± Atomic “orbitals” of hydrogen ± Other atoms, their properties, and the periodic table ± Atoms of semiconductors ± Summary of important concepts
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2 3 Introduction Basic electrical and optical device properties of semiconductor devices depend on the quantum mechanical states of the semiconductor crystal … … but to step right from a fast abbreviated introduction to quantum mechanics to this latter subject is a bit like taking the training wheels off your bike and entering the Tour de France. These notes are intended to (slightly) buffer that transition a bit by considering first the hydrogen atom the only atom and one of the few quantum mechanical systems that can be analyzed exactly analytically … and then more complicated atoms that to date can’t be analyzed exactly even by numerical methods … including those that make up semiconductor crystals. 4 The atomic “orbitals” of the Hydrogen atom Central potential with spherical symmetry carrier energy eigenfuctions, the “ orbitals ,” that are separable in spherical coordinates … plus spin … Figure 2—7 The spherical coordinate system. ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , ( ' s r s m l n E n ± = ψ φ θ r
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3 5 … where (as it turns out) the quantum numbers n, l, m and s vary as where (just terminology)
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CN4-Atomic structure - Atomic structure and the Periodic...

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