Sociology Review- Test 2

Sociology Review- Test 2 - Sociology Review Test 2 Ch. 6,...

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Sociology Review Test 2 Ch. 6, 7, 9, 10 CH. 6 Deviance and Crime: Deviance- any behavior that violates social norms Crime- act that violets criminal law and punishable by fines or other sanctions Deviance is NOT ALWAYS a crime, but a crime is ALWAYS a deviant Social Control- o External- uses negative sanctions and sets forth punishment for rule breaking o Internal- acquired through socialization Formal- police Informal- parents and peers Criminology- The systematic study of crime and criminal justice system Theories on Deviance o Biological - Lombroso (Father of Criminology) Body Type and Temperature- Sheldon Endomorph, Ectomorph, and Mesomorph Extra Chromosome Theory Extra Y (XXY) programs more aggression in some males o Richard Speck first American Serial Killer o Fallacy: Only tested people in prison. Extra X (XXX) programs more passiveness in some females, more depressed o Psychological - Freud Frustration/ Aggression- low tolerance for
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frustration… Beware Id, Ego, Superego must be in balance o Sociological - Functionalist: Deviance in inevitable, it is universal Durkheim on Deviance- Functions: o Clarifies Rules o Unites a group o Promotes social change o Lets off built up frustration (KM) Rosa Parks started the civil rights movement by being deviant- change for the good!!! Strain Theory: (Merton) People feel strain when they are exposed to cultural goals that are unable to obtain because they do not have access to culturally approved means to achieving those goals o 5 Ways in Which People adapt to cultural goals and approved ways of achieving them: Conformity Innovation Ritualism Retreatism Rebellion Opportunity Theory: (Cloward and Ohlin) for deviance to occur people must have access to illegitimate opportunity structures- circumstances that provide an opportunity for people to acquire through legitimate channels. Symbolic Internationalist- Sutherland Theory- Differential Association Theory- is one associates with deviants one will become deviant
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o “Saints and Roughnecks” Social Bond Theory- Deviance increases when a person’s ties to a society are weakened or broken. Labeling Theory- deviant are those people who have been labeled as deviant by others o Primary deviance gives the label of deviant which causes the secondary deviant act Conflict- Critical Theory (Marx, Quinney) The powerful use law and criminal justice system to protect their own class interests This theory examines relationship of race, class, and gender… Other theories focus on relationship between deviance and capitalism Sociologist Classify Crime o Traditional- street crime, property crimes (robbery), and moral crimes (rape) o White Collar/Occupational Crime- embezzlement, hacking, securities theft, price fixing o Organized Crime- Mafia, Al Qaeda, Cartel o Political- illegal or unethical acts threatens stability or power of governments (Treason, sedition)
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This note was uploaded on 02/04/2009 for the course SOC 1401 taught by Professor Mueller during the Spring '08 term at Baylor.

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Sociology Review- Test 2 - Sociology Review Test 2 Ch. 6,...

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