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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1: Fundamental Concepts Motor Development Understanding the processes by which movement control and coordination emerge is fundamental to understanding how we live Continuous change in motor behaviour throughout life (i.e., sequential) Orderly and irreversible Interaction among the biology of the individual, requirements of the movement task, and the conditions of the environment Definition: sequential, continuous age-related process whereby movement behaviour changes - We move to get out of bed, to go to school, to play, to eat, to breathe... - Development is a continuous process of change in functional capacity cumulative - Development is sequential change ~ result of interactions within the individual and interactions between individual and environment - Development is related to (BUT not dependent on) age - individuals don't necessarily advance in age and advance in development at the same rate - Motor development = development of movement abilities Developmental change in movement behaviour and the factors underlying those changes Including process of change and movement outcome Periods of Change - Terminology -Embryo: conception - 2 mo. -Fetus: 3 mo. - birth -Infant: birth - 2 yr. -Toddler: 2 - 3 -Early Childhood: 2 - 6 -Late Childhood: 6 - 12 -Adolescence: 10 - 18 (girls); 12 - 18 (boys) -Adult: 18+ -Middle Age: 40 - 60 -Older Adult: 60+ Related Areas of Study Motor learning - relatively permanent gains in motor skill capability associated with practice or experience; i.e. related to experience rather than age (because age-related is motor development) Motor behaviour = motor + motor dev't learning Use the term motor behaviour when don't want to distinguish between motor development and motor learning, or when want to include both Motor development = continuous change in motor behaviour throughout life Motor control - the neural, physical, and behavioral aspects of movement that permit skilled and coordinated movements Related Terms Growth: Quantitative increase in size or body mass Maturation: Qualitative advance in biological makeup; Cell, organ, or system advancement in biochemical composition (vs size alone); development continues long after physical maturity is reached Aging: Process occurring with the passage of time, leading to loss of adaptability or full function and eventually to death Constraints Limit or discourage certain movements at the same time that they permit or encourage other movements "Shape" movement A constraint is a characteristic of the individual, environment, or task (or interaction among) that either facilitates or restricts movement Constraints provide channels from which movements most easily emerge Notion of constraint guide our understanding of motor development throughout this course Newell's Model of Constraints **very important memorize Movements arise from the interactions of the organism, the environment in which the movement occurs, and the task to be undertaken o If any of these three factors change, the resultant movement changes o i.e. to understand movement, we must consider the relationships between or among the characteristics of the individual mover, his surroundings, and the purpose or reasons for his moving. From the interaction of all these characteristics, specific movements emerge Example: your walk might change notably if the floor is wet and slippery due to the interaction of the individual and task with the changing environment Important because individual is always undergoing age-related changes, and this constantly changes the interaction with environment and task and therefore changes the way individuals move o Even greater change in interactions if environment and/or task change as well Dynamic, constantly changing interactions in motor development Individual Constraints Exist within the body Examples: height, limb length, strength, and motivation Structural constraints are related to body's structure physical characteristics Height Muscle mass Functional constraints are related to behavioral function; can change in a short time mental characteristics Attention Motivation Memory Individual constraints exist within the body ~ unique physical (structural) and mental (functional) characteristics to individual Individual is always undergoing age-related changes, which constantly change the interaction with environment and task subsequent change in the way the individual moves Constraints affect each other and can change based on interactions among each other Environmental Constraints Exist outside the body (properties of the world around us) Global, not task specific Physical Constraints: characteristics of the environment Gravity Surfaces of floors and walls Temperature, Humidity, amount of light Sociocultural Constraints Gender roles Task Constraints External to the body Goals undertaken within the rules of the game and the choices of equipment Related specifically to tasks or skills Goal of task Rules guiding task performance Equipment Researching Developmental Change Longitudinal research study: study in which the same individual or group is observes performing the same tasks or behaviors repetitively, over a long time o Takes a long time to complete Cross-sectional research study: study in which developmental change is implied by observing individuals or groups of varying ages at one point in time o Takes shorter time than longitudinal o Disadvantage: never really observe change (it is merely inferred) Cohort: group whose members share a common characteristic, such as age or experience o Can cause problems with research result Avoid problems by combining longitudinal and cross-sectional studies Mixed-longitudinal or sequential, research study: several age groups are observed repetitively over a shorter time span, permitting observation of an age span that is longer than the observation period A Paradox in Development Universality Individuals in a species show great similarity in their development Variability Individual differences exist Stages of development describe the emergence of universal behaviours (e.g. milestones) Must consider an individual's behaviour in the context of both universal behaviours and individual differences Discussion Questions Short-answer questions on exams ** 1. What is the fundamental developmental perspective that separates the study of motor development from other subdisciplines of the movement sciences? -Newell's Model (?) ... 2. What is the difference between physical growth and physiological maturation? - physical growth describes the increase in size of the entire individual - physiological maturation describes the growth of the individual cells, organs or systems that make up the individual - physical growth is an increase in size, whereas maturation can mean an advancement in biochemical composition rather than size alone 3. Think of your favourite physical activity, exercise, or sport. Describe some of the individual (structural and functional), environmental, and task constraints of this activity. - Sport: Hockey - Structural constraints: height, weight and strength are important when battling for the puck against other players (ie if small and weak, will be harder to win puck); leg length can be a constraint for skating stride length and therefore speed - Functional constraints: Attention and Motivation - Environmental Constraints: temperature in the arena (due to temperature outside) can make the quality of the ice good or bad (make the puck stick, harder to skate) - Task Constraints: player must pass the puck to other team mates to score a goal while preventing the other team from getting the puck 4. Why might a person planning a career teaching children study older adults? - To see how even though children may have variability with their motor development, they can still take different pathways to the same universal point in development that older adults have (?) - Universality vs Variability 5. What are the difference between longitudinal research studies and cross-sectional research studies? What characteristics of each are used in sequential, or mixed-longitudinal, researches? - Longitudinal follows the same person (or group) over a long period of time - Cross-sectional follows different people of groups over the time of the study - Longitudinal takes much longer than a cross-sectional - Longitudinal sees development of the person over the years, where as cross-sectional only infers development and change - Sequential: o Conduct several small longitudinal studies by using the same groups of subjects over the time of the study; cross-sectional in the sense that in each year that they do the study, they use groups of subjects that are of different ages 6. What is a developmental perspective? What does `developmentally appropriate' mean? - A developmental perspective is a point of view and explanation of how motor development occurs - `Developmentally appropriate' means how teachers, coaches, etc... modify an activity (ex net height in basketball) for the development stage of the person playing, based on the structural constraints they may face (ie too short for adult height nets) o describe care that takes into account the level of physical, social, emotional, and intellectual development of a child. ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course EDKP 261 taught by Professor Staples during the Fall '07 term at McGill.
- Fall '07