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1. Historical Legacies

1. Historical Legacies - A Historical Legacies 1 The long...

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A. Historical Legacies 1. The long 19 th Century (1789-1945): . begins with the French Revolution and ends w/ military defeat of fascism What kinds of political innovations are introduced in Europe as a consequence of the French revolution? 1) Introduction of Republicanism as a radical alternative to the Old Regime. Republicanism challenged the old regime (governed by monarchs w/divine rights) by being anti-monarchical and anti-Catholic, epitomized by the beheading of the monarch. European countries that were against the old regime came to support French style Republicanism 2) Growing importance of the nation and nationalism To some extent, popular sovereignty located in the people Nationalism becomes a rallying cry “vive la nation” to mobilize population for revolution and war Domestic solidarity 3) Importance of civil religion. Put a political substitute in place for a coherent society distinguishing between sacred and profane Social/Political Revolution. Sort of a civil war as the Revolution was incomplete. Values of republicanism were fought until consolidated in the late 1950s w/the Fifth Republic (after long series of regime changes to get institutional framework back and attempts to roll back Republic). 2. Revolution & war
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a) 1848: Organized around values of Democratic Republicanism. b) 1870-71: - territorial unification of Italy and Germany - Political transition to the 3 rd Republic in France - Franco-Prussian war: first important war between France and Germany marking the beginning of enduring pbs in their relation c) 1917: Russian Revolution (pillar for the creation of the Soviet Union) d) 1918: end of WWI - beginning of collapse of Empires consequent for Europe (Austro- Hungarian/Hapsburg Empire, Ottoman Empire, Russian Empire) - political reintegration of Eastern & Central Europe (short-lived democratic trials) - reorganization of German politics into the Weimar Republic - Treaty of Versailles putting huge restrictions and reparations blaming Germany e) 1933: peaceful social and political transition to Nazism in Germany f) 1945: military defeat of fascism turbulent period of wars and revolutions. Democratic consolidation in W. Europe only
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1. Historical Legacies - A Historical Legacies 1 The long...

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