26 Jazz and Art Music - Early Jazz Developed by...

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Unformatted text preview: 12/5/14 Early Jazz •  Developed by African-­‐American musicians in the early 20th century Jazz and Art Music Early Jazz •  Developed by African-­‐American musicians in the early 20th century •  Hard to de?ine Early Jazz •  Developed by African-­‐American musicians in the early 20th century •  Hard to de?ine •  Preceded by ragtime 1 12/5/14 Early Jazz •  Developed by African-­‐American musicians in the early 20th century •  Hard to de?ine •  Preceded by ragtime •  Style of piano playing. Bars, dives, and brothels Early Jazz •  Developed by African-­‐American musicians in the early 20th century •  Hard to de?ine •  Preceded by ragtime Early Jazz •  Developed by African-­‐American musicians in the early 20th century •  Hard to de?ine •  Preceded by ragtime •  Style of piano playing. Bars, dives, and brothels •  Developed alongside new phonographs Scott Joplin (1868-­‐1917) •  Leading composer of rag •  Style of piano playing. Bars, dives, and brothels •  Developed alongside new phonographs •  Similar to march style, but while the left hand played a strict beat, the right hand used syncopation 2 12/5/14 Scott Joplin (1868-­‐1917) •  Leading composer of rag •  “Maple Leaf Rag” (1899) Improvisation •  Jazz players do not stick to melodies, they play around them •  Syncopation Improvisation •  Jazz players do not stick to melodies, they play around them •  Breaks Improvisation •  Jazz players do not stick to melodies, they play around them •  Breaks •  Compare to “theme and variations” 3 12/5/14 Improvisation •  Jazz players do not stick to melodies, they play around them •  Breaks •  Compare to “theme and variations” •  Structure! The Blues •  Kerman describes the blues as “a special category of black folk song whose subject is loneliness, trouble, and depression of every shade.” •  Emerged around 1900 The Blues •  Kerman describes the blues as “a special category of black folk song whose subject is loneliness, trouble, and depression of every shade.” The Blues •  Kerman describes the blues as “a special category of black folk song whose subject is loneliness, trouble, and depression of every shade.” •  Emerged around 1900 •  Strophic 4 12/5/14 The Blues •  Kerman describes the blues as “a special category of black folk song whose subject is loneliness, trouble, and depression of every shade.” •  Emerged around 1900 •  Strophic   12-­‐bar blues “If You Ever Been Down” (1927) •  Sippie Wallace and Louis Armstrong The Blues •  Kerman describes the blues as “a special category of black folk song whose subject is loneliness, trouble, and depression of every shade.” •  Emerged around 1900 •  Strophic •  12-­‐bar blues •  a a b “If You Ever Been Down” (1927) •  Sippie Wallace and Louis Armstrong •  12-­‐bar blues with instrumental breaks and 12-­‐bar solo by Louis Armstrong 5 12/5/14 Big Bands: Swing Big Bands: Swing •  Increasing popularity and commercialization of jazz in the 1930s Big Bands: Swing •  Increasing popularity and commercialization of jazz in the 1930s •  New reach towards white audiences Big Bands: Swing •  Increasing popularity and commercialization of jazz in the 1930s •  New reach towards white audiences •  Jazz had to reach bigger audiences, which meant bigger bands 6 12/5/14 Big Bands: Swing •  Increasing popularity and commercialization of jazz in the 1930s •  New reach towards white audiences •  Jazz had to reach bigger audiences, which meant bigger bands •  Bigger bands meant more precise arrangements and less improvisation Characteristics of Big Bands •  Compensated for lack of improvisation by using arrangements that enhanced different tone colors and effects •  Contrast between brass and reed instruments with soloists interjecting Characteristics of Big Bands •  Compensated for lack of improvisation by using arrangements that enhanced different tone colors and effects Characteristics of Big Bands •  Compensated for lack of improvisation by using arrangements that enhanced different tone colors and effects •  Contrast between brass and reed instruments with soloists interjecting •  Big Band arrangers comparable to the European art-­‐music composers we have studied 7 12/5/14 Count Basie and His Orchestra “Air Mail Special” (1941) Count Basie and His Orchestra “Air Mail Special” (1941) •  Count Basie was a jazz pianist, organist, composer/ arranger, and bandleader Count Basie and His Orchestra “Air Mail Special” (1941) How does jazz ?it in to art music? •  Count Basie was a jazz pianist, organist, composer/ arranger, and bandleader •  Listen for contrasts between brass and reeds 8 12/5/14 How does jazz ?it in to art music? •  Received by many “cultivated” audiences as vulgar George Gershwin (1898-­‐1937) How does jazz ?it in to art music? •  Received by many “cultivated” audiences as vulgar •  Appealed to younger generations and some composers of art music George Gershwin (1898-­‐1937) •  Began as a composer of popular songs with his brother, Ira Gershwin 9 12/5/14 George Gershwin (1898-­‐1937) •  Began as a composer of popular songs with his brother, Ira Gershwin •  Jazz pianist Rhapsody in Blue George Gershwin, 1924 George Gershwin (1898-­‐1937) •  Began as a composer of popular songs with his brother, Ira Gershwin •  Jazz pianist •  Became determined to compose “cultivated” music Rhapsody in Blue George Gershwin, 1924 •  Solo piano and orchestra 10 12/5/14 Rhapsody in Blue George Gershwin, 1924 Prelude, Fugue, and Riffs Leonard Bernstein, 1949 •  Solo piano and orchestra •  What sounds like jazz? Prelude, Fugue, and Riffs Leonard Bernstein, 1949 •  Bernstein was the ultimate crossover musician 11 ...
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