IR_Final_Exam_Study_Guide - 3:38:00 PM B L`s 5 main...

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03/12/2006 18:38:00 B & L’s 5 main critiques -Presentism: concerned w/ contemporary history, expertise needed on current  events. Calls for forward thinking rather than backward thinking. -Ahistorism: the search for general laws that apply to the past as well as the  present.  Theorists seek to identify laws that are immune too historical variation.   -Eurocentrism: self evidently true. Brought 1 st  International system together  through colonialism and those not with Euro stamp were forced to conform for example  Japan.  May be true but the history can be told by ignoring and distorting info.  Eurocentric accounts invariably ignore Afro-Eurasian system that evolved long before  the Euros began to extend across the globe.  Very closely related to Edward Said’s  “Orientalism.” IR is too commonly studied from this very Eurocentric perspective w/a  concommitment failure to come to terms w/how non-euros “others” understand IR and  organize their world.   -Anarchophilia: IR for past 5000 years has not been anarchic, but arranged on a  spectrum, anarchy at one end empire at the other.  w/ hegemony, suzerainty, and  dominion in between. -State Centrism: almost inseparable from anarchophilia.   Big reason for the  underdeveloped conceptualization of the int. system.      Critiques to Neo-Realism - Ahistorism- widely accepted that texture of international politics did not change  over time because patterns recur and events repeat themselves endlessly They assume that the balance of power provides the basis for a transhistorical  theory that accounts just as well for behavior in greek city-states as it did for relations  between the soviet union and the US. Euro-centrism- everything started and ends with Europe Anarchophilia- it is the normative assumption in neo-realsim. 
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State Centrism- reason for why so focused on military political especially  because politics are secured only on state level, they are linked indissolubly with the  state.  Attempts to dissolve weaknesses Want to develop open-ended approach to int. system which does not prejudge  the nature of the dominant units in the system, which also doesn’t privilege one sector  of activity over another (politics over econ.) or give precedence to one mode pf  explanation over another (process over structure).  Wants main resource to be history  and theory.   Three broad tools they utilize to get away for critiques: 1. Levels of Analysis-degree and aggregation International system all the way to individual level.
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