PSY 121 Finals Study Guide - Chapter 1 Who established the...

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Chapter 1 " Who established the first psychology lab? Where? When? How did he define psychology? -Wilhelm Wundt at a University in Germany in 1879, he defined psych as the science of mental life. " What are the two disciplines that most influenced the emergence of psychology? - " How did Watson redefine the discipline of psychology? Why did he do it? - " What is the modern definition of psychology? -Scientific study of behavior and mental processes. A science that aims to observe, describe, and explain how we think, feel, and act. " What is the nature/nurture issue? What is the stance on this issue that most modern psychologists hold? -the controversy over the relative contributions of biology and experience. " What are the different modern perspectives on psychology? -Neuroscience: How the mind and body work together to create emotion memories. -Evolutionary: How evolution influences your bodies behavior. -Behavior Genetics: How your genetics play a role in your behavior. -Psychodynamic: Freud believes on how behavior comes from unconscious thrives and concept. -Behavioral: How behaviors and acquired and change and how you change unwanted behaviors. -Cognitive: How you encode, process, store and retrieve info. -Social-Cultural: How behavior and thoughts differ in different situations, society, and culture. " What is the difference between basic and applied research? -Basic: Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base. -Applied: Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems. " Differentiate among clinical psychologists, counseling psychologists, and psychiatrists. -Clinical Psychologist: assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. -Counseling Psychologists: helps people cope with challenges by recognizing their strengths and resources. -Psychiatrists: medical doctors licensed to prescribe drugs and treat physical causes of psychological disorders. " What is hindsight bias? -the tendency to believe after learning an outcome that one would have foreseen it. The “I knew it all along” phenomenon. " What are the basic components of the scientific attitude? -Curious skepticism and critical thinking. " What is a hypothesis? A theory? -Hypothesis: a testable prediction, often implied by a theory. -Theory: an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observation and predict behaviors or events. " What are case studies? What is naturalistic observation? -Case Study: an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principals. -Naturalistic Observation: observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation " What is a survey? Make sure you know the difference among kinds of samples, and the difference between a sample and a population -Survey: A study of the prevalence of certain beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors base on people’s responses to specific questions.
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Samples: -Random Sampling: a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has
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PSY 121 Finals Study Guide - Chapter 1 Who established the...

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