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bio lab report17 - Sheldon Pope(with Allison Lam and Eric...

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Sheldon Pope (with Allison, Lam and Eric) Bio 412 Lab Section 18 4-3-08 Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, and Nematodes Introduction: The Kingdom Animalia includes all organisms which are classified as animals. These animals are heterotrophic eukaryotes. The cells in an animal have no cell wall and usually perform a specific function such as moving food or water across the membrane. Animals are diploid with haploid gametes and reproduce generally by sexual means. Over the years animals have become more complex by the addition of some subkingdoms and other structural improvements. Phylum Porifera is the smallest major phylum of the animal kingdom. Porifera refers to animals that have a lot of pores, therefore the phylum contains sponges. Sponges are filter feeders with intramolecular design. Sponges like to reproduce both sexually and asexually. Sexual reproductions tend to be hermaphroditic. Asexual reproduction happens through budding and the production of gemmules. Sponges are typically asymmetrical with three body types; ascon, sycon, and leucon. They lack true tissues but they do have gelatinous mesenchyme as well as an outer most layer of epithelial layer of cells. Water flows through sponges by flagellated canals, incurrent canals, or the use of osculum. The fibers of a sponge are arranged in a crystalline structure. Cnidarians are mostly marine carnivores that include hydrozoans, jellyfish, anemones, and corals.
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