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GB2 Q3 Week 1-2.pdf - 2 nd General Biology 2 Semester- 3rd...

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1General Biology 22ndSemester- 3rdQuarterS.Y. 2021-2022Name: __________________________________Strand: STEMFebruary 15, 2021Most Essential Learning Competencies:1.Outline the processes involved in genetic engineering.2.Discuss the applications of recombinant DNA.Quarter 3-Week 1: Genetic EngineeringMany people are unaware that humans have been practicing genetic engineering sincethe ancient times. Selective breeding or classical breeding in agricultural crops and livestockhas altered the genetic make-up of these organisms over the centuries in such a way that theyno longer resemble their non-domesticated relatives. This practice has been common longbefore genes were discovered.DiscoverGenetic engineering involves the use of molecular techniques to modify the traits of atarget organism. The modification of traits may involve the introduction of new traits into anorganism as to enhancement of present traits by increasing the expression of the desired geneor by disrupting the inhibition of the desired genes’ expression.Genetic engineering includesclassical breedingwhich is considered as the traditionalway of genetic engineering which practices the mating of organisms with desirable qualitiesandRecombinant DNA technology (rDNA),a modern technique of genetic engineering.Recombinant DNA technology is the joining together ofDNAmolecules from twodifferent species. The recombinedDNAmolecule is inserted into a host organism to producenew genetic combinations that are of value to science, medicine, agriculture, and industry.The general steps in recombinant DNA are asfollows:I.Cuttingor cleavage of DNA by restrictionenzymes (REs) as shown on step 2 on thediagram.Restrictionenzymesarecalled‘molecular scissors’ cutting the DNA at specifictarget sequences leaving a single-strandedoverhang at the site of the cleavage (step 2).These overhangs of the donor DNA (gene ofinterest) will be paired with other overhangs(vector DNA).II.Selectionof an appropriate vector orvehicle which would propagate the recombinantDNA (shown on step 1). The most used asvectors are plasmids (circular DNA moleculesthat originated from bacteria, viruses, and yeast cells). Plasmids are not part of the maincellular genome, but they carry genes that provide the host cell with useful properties such asdrug resistance, mating ability, and toxins production. They are small enough to beconveniently manipulated experimentally and furthermore, they will carry extra DNA that isspliced to them.
2III.Ligation(join together) of the gene of interest (eg. from animal) with the vector (cutbacterial plasmid) as shown on step 3 of the above diagram.The resulting molecule is calledrecombinant DNA. It is recombinant in the sense that it is composed of DNA from two differentsources.

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