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James Joyce (1882-1941)Writing, consciousness, and nationality•Break down of grand cultural myths and systems of belief•The “epiphany” – a new experience of knowledge•Writing explores human consciousness in the midst of changing systems•Irish nationalityoJoyce wrote while living in Europe but always wrote about DublinoHe had a sense of being in exile as a writer because of rebellion against Irishvalues and expectations“The Dead” (published 1914 in collection titledDubliners)•Which, if any, characteristics of modern literature are present in Joyce's story? Besidesthe time of its production, why should this story be categorized as Modernist? Or,alternatively, how does it challenge such a categorization?•Last story inDubliners, which begins with childhood, and moves through adolescence,adulthood, and public life–Most of the stories focus on a single moment in a person’s life that highlights theparticular stage of life being considered; but, “The Dead” encompasses life fromchildhood through death•Combination ofpersonalissues of desire and belonging andpoliticalissues Irish andEnglish identity•Joyce’s representation of the party:–Emphasizes its routine: “always a great affair”; “for years and years…as long asanyone can remember”; “that was a good thirty years ago.”–Full of activity and life, but an undertone of exhaustion: “Lily…was literally runoff her feet”; Freddy Malins’s sleepiness; Aunt Julia’s blank stare–Joyce believed that Irish culture had become, by and large, cut off from the worldand “paralyzed” -- Julia’s and Kate’s party represents that paralysis to someextent