Yellowstone - Geosc 10 Thursday February 4th 1999...

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Geosc 10 Thursday, February 4th, 1999 Announcements: first exam is next Thursday Lecture notes: I. Preview A. Yellowstone 1. Earthquakes 2. Explosive volcanoes B. Tectonic setting (style of eruption) 1. Hot spot beneath CONTINENT C. Related topics 1. Geysirs 2. Calderas 3. Rheology -- ability to flow, stickiness a. Eruptive styles b. P, S and surface waves II. Lava types and properties A. Basalt (ex. Hawaii) 1. Comes from melting the asthenosphere (hot part of mantle) 2. 45% Silica ( SiO 2 ), 8-10% Magnesium ( MgO ) 3. Very dark in color 4. Flow properties
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a. Low viscosity b. Flows readily so eruptions are not as dangerous 5. Formed all ocean floor (Mid Ocean Ridge system and hot spots under ocean floor) B. Andesite (ex. Cascades, Aleutians, Lesser Antilles, Mt. St. Helens) 1. Has a complex origin 2. Involves melting of some asthenosphere and some crust 3. Found in the Andes (subduction--like volcanoes) 4. 55% Silica ( SiO 2 ), 4-5% Magnesium ( MgO ) 5. Moderate grey in color 6. Flow properties a. Intermediate viscosity b. May flow or explode 7. Formed in subduction environment
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