Child crypt sheet - exam 1

Child crypt sheet - exam 1 - Age-history confound In...

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Age-history confound In longitudinal studies, the co-occurrence of historical factors with changes in age; affects the ability to interpret results. Clinical method Flexible, open-ended interview method in which questions are modified in reaction to the child’s responses. Cohort effects Characteristics shared by individuals growing up in a given sociohistorical context that can influence developmental outcomes. Cross-sectional study A study in which individuals of different ages are examined at the same point in time. Debriefing Providing research participants with a statement of the true goals of a study after initially deceiving them or omitting information about its purposes. Dependent variable Behavior that is measured; suspected effect of an experimental manipulation. Ethnography Set of methods, including observations and interviews, used by researchers to describe the behaviors and underlying meaning systems within a given culture. Experimental design Research method in which one or more independent variables are manipulated to determine the effect on other, dependent variables. Field experiment Experiment conducted in a "natural," real- world setting such as the child’s home or school. Independent variable Variable manipulated by the experimenter; the suspected cause. Longitudinal study Research in which the same participants are repeatedly tested over a period of time, usually years. Meta-analysis Statistical examination of a body of research studies to assess the effect of the common central variable. Naturalistic observation Study in which observations of naturally occurring behavior are made in real-life settings. Operational definition Specification of variables in terms of measurable properties. Participant reactivity Tendency of individuals who know they are under observation to alter natural behavior. Quasi-experiment Study in which the assignment of individuals to experimental groups is determined by their natural experiences. Reliability Degree to which a measure will yield the same results if administered repeatedly. Sequential study Study that examines groups of children of different ages over a period of time; usually shorter than a longitudinal study. Temperament Stable, early-appearing constellation of individual personality attributes believed to have a hereditary basis; includes sociability, emotionality, and activity level. Validity Degree to which an assessment procedure actually measures the variable under consideration. Allele Alternate form of a specific gene; provides a genetic basis for many individual differences. Amniocentesis Method of sampling the fluid surrounding the developing fetus by insertion of a needle. Used to diagnose fetal genetic and developmental disorders. Autosomes
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course PSYCH 350 taught by Professor Anderson during the Spring '08 term at UMass (Amherst).

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Child crypt sheet - exam 1 - Age-history confound In...

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