Child Psych Cheat Sheet Vocab

Child Psych Cheat Sheet Vocab - Ambivalent(resistant...

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Ambivalent (resistant) attachment Insecure attachment in which the infant shows separation protest but also distress upon the caregiver’s return. Analogical transfer Ability to employ the solution to one problem in other, similar problems. Animism Attribution of lifelike qualities to inanimate objects. Artificialism Belief that naturally occurring events are caused by people. Attachment Strong emotional bond that emerges between infant and caregiver. Autobiographical memory Memory for specific events in one’s own life. Avoidant attachment Insecure attachment in which the infant shows little separation anxiety and does not pay much attention to the caregiver’s return. Babbling Consonant-vowel utterances that characterize the infant’s first attempts to vocalize. Basic emotion Emotion such as joy, sadness, or surprise that appears early in infancy and seems to have a biological foundation. Also called primary emotion. Broca’s area Portion of the cerebral cortex that controls expressive language. (production and syntax) Canonical babbling Repetition of simple consonant-vowel combinations in well-formed syllables. Cardinality Principle that the last number in a set of counted numbers refers to the number of items in that set. Centration In Piagetian theory, tendency of the child to focus on only one aspect of a problem. Cognition Processes involved in thinking and mental activity, such as attention, memory, and problem solving. Concept Definition of a set of information on the basis of some general or abstract principle. Concrete operational stage In Piagetian theory, the third stage of development, from approximately seven to eleven years of age, in which thought is logical when stimuli are physically present. Conservation tasks Problems that require the child to make judgments about the equivalence of two displays; used to assess stage of cognitive development. Cooing Vowel-like utterances that characterize the infant’s first attempts to vocalize. Core knowledge hypothesis The idea that infants possess innate knowledge of certain properties of objects. Disorganized/disoriented attachment Infant-caregiver relations characterized by the infant’s fear of the caregiver, confused facial expressions, and a combination of avoidant and ambivalent attachment behaviors. Display rules The cultural guidelines concerning when, how, and to what degree to display emotions. Egocentrism Preoperational child’s inability to separate his or her own perspective from those of others. Elaboration Memory strategy in which individuals link items to be remembered in the form of an image or a sentence. Elicited imitation A way of assessing memory in which children must reconstruct a unique sequence of actions that they have seen in the past; usually used with preverbal children.
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