Respiratory_System_Students - Respiratory System EXSS 175 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Respiratory System EXSS 175 1 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Purpose of the Respiratory System – Gas Exchange • Intake O2 and deliver to body cells and elimination of CO2 produced by body cells – Regulate Blood pH – Contains receptors for the sense of smell, filters air, produces vocal sounds, excretes small amounts of water and heat 2 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Organs in the Respiratory System STRUCTURE nose / nasal cavity pharynx (throat) FUNCTION warms, moistens, & filters air as it is inhaled passageway for air, leads to trachea larynx the voice box, where vocal chords are located trachea (windpipe) keeps the windpipe "open" trachea is lined with fine hairs called cilia which filter air before it reaches the lungs bronchi two branches at the end of the trachea, each lead to a lung bronchioles alveoli a network of smaller branches leading from the bronchi into the lung tissue & ultimately to air sacs the functional respiratory units in the lung where gases are exchanged The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Respiration • Gas exchange between atmosphere and body cells – Gas = oxygen, carbon dioxide 3 Processes of Respiration: • Pulmonary Ventilation – Movement of air: In lungs Out lungs • Alveolar Respiration – Movement of gases: Lungs Blood • Tissue Respiration – Movement of gases: Blood cells (diffusion) 4 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill General Pathway of Airflow Nose Pharynx Trachea Bronchi Lungs 5 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Nasal Cavity • Nose – Covered with skin – Supported internally by bone and cartilage • Nasal Cavity – Hollow space behind nose – Divided into R and L portions by nasal septum – Anterior is cartilage – Posterior is bone (vomer, ethmoid, maxillae, palatine) 6 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Nasal Cavity Divided Into 3 Areas • Vestibule : – Anterior portion just inside nostrils – Lined with skin & coarse hairs • Filter large dust particles • Olfactory : – Roof of nasal cavity above superior nasal conchae – Houses olfactory cells • Cranial Nerve I = smell 7 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Nasal Cavity Divided Into 3 Areas (cont.) • Respiratory(major portion): – Superior, middle, inferior nasal conchae – Curl out from lateral walls • Provide superior, middle, and inferior meatuses (“groove-like passageways”) – Inhaled air is warmed as it moves through passageways & mucus is released to trap dust particles 8 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 10 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Saddle Deformity of the Nose 11 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Pharynx • “Throat” • Location: – Behind oral cavity – Between nasal cavity and larynx • “Funnel shaped” tube ~ 5 inches long • Functions: – Passageway for air and food – Provides a resonating chamber for speech sounds 12 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Pharynx 3 Subdivisions of Pharynx (NOL) • Nasopharynx (superior) – Location: • Posterior to nasal cavity, extends to plane of soft palate – Function: • Equalizes pressure between pharynx and inner ear via auditory tubes • Oropharnynx (middle) – Location: • Posterior to oral cavity, extends from soft palate to hyoid – Function: • Respiratory & digestive passageway • Houses two pairs of tonsils found here (palatine & larynx) 14 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Pharynx 3 Subdivisions of Pharynx (cont.) • Larynopharnyx – Location: • Extends inferiorly from hyoid bone and becomes continuous with the esophagus posteriorly and larynx anteriorly – Function: • Respiratory & digestive passageway 15 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Larynx • “Voicebox” • Short passageway connecting the pharynx (laryngopharynx) to trachea • Location: – Midline of neck anterior to C4-C6 17 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Larynx Cartilages of Larynx • Thyroid Cartilage – a.k.a. “Adam’s Apple” – Forms anterior wall of larynx • Epiglottis – Large piece of elastic cartilage • Leaf shaped, trapdoor hinged to thyroid cartilage Swallowing – Involved in Pharynx & Larynx Rise swallowing Seals off glottis Epiglottis slides down Prevents food & fluid from entering larynx, forces into esophagus 20 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Larynx Cartilages of Larynx (cont.) • Glottis – Pair of folds of mucous membranes • Vocal folds (true vocal cords) – Rima glottidis: space between the two folds • Cricoid Cartilage – Ring of hyaline cartilage that forms the inferior wall of larynx • Clinical landmark for tracheotomy - emergency air • Only complete ring or cartilage in glottis/trachea 21 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 22 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Larynx Conditions • Laryngitis – inflammation of the larynx that is most often caused by a respiratory infection or irritants such as smoking – inflammation of the vocal folds causes hoarseness or loss of voice by interfering with the contraction of the folds or by causing them to swell to the point at which they can’t vibrate freely • Cancer of the Larynx – almost exclusively in individuals who smoke 23 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Trachea • “Windpipe” - cartilage • Tubular air passageway (4.5” long & 1” diameter) • Location: – Anterior to esophagus, extends from larynx to T5 – Divides into R and L primary bronchi at T5 level • Carina: cartilaginous ring surrounding trachea at division point 24 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 25 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Tracheotomy • “Creating a hole in the trachea” • Any type of obstruction (injury, swelling, foreign object, etc…) causing the airway to not be allowed to function properly • An incision is made into trachea inferior to “cricoid cartilage” – Patient breathes through a plastic or metal tracheal tube 26 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Bronchial Tree • Branched airways leading from trachea to (large) air sacs in lungs (microscopic) – R and L Primary Bronchi – Lobe Bronchi (secondary bronchi) – Segmentary Bronchi (tertiary bronchi) – Bronchioles – Terminary – Respiratory Bronchioles – Alveolar ducts – Alveoli Large Microscopic 27 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 28 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Primary Bronchi • Extrapulmonary • Arise from trachea at level of T5 • Right is more vertical and wider – Common site for objects to become lodged 29 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Secondary (lobar) Bronchi • One branch to each lobe of the lungs • Right lung – 3 lobes = 3 secondary bronchi • Superior, middle, inferior • Left lung – 2 lobes = 2 secondary bronchi • Superior & inferior 30 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Tertiary (segmentary) Bronchi • Smaller branches of bronchi • 10 total in each lung 31 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Bronchioles • Even smaller bronchi within the lungs 32 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Terminal Bronchioles • End branches of bronchi • 50-80 per lobe 33 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Respiratory Bronchioles • Microscopic branches that penetrate deep into lungs – .5mm diameter = very short – First structures in sequence that can take part in gas exchange 34 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Alveolar Ducts • 2 - 11 for each respiratory bronchiole • Branch from each respiratory bronchiole 35 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Alveoli • Latin for “Flask” • Thin walled microscopic air sacs that allow for air diffusion • Each alveoli surrounded by capillary network – Pulmonary membrane is very thin • “alveolar capillary membrane” – Allows for diffusion of gases across alveolar & capillary wall • Are prevented from collapsing by “surfactant” (keeps the surface tension down - like soap creates water bubble) 36 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 38 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Lungs • Soft, spongy, cone-shaped organs located in the thoracic cavity Landmarks: • Base: Broad inferior portion, concave • Apex: Superior portion, narrow • Costal Surface: Surface lying against ribs • Mediastinal Surface (medial): Contains hilus – Entrance & exit site of bonchi, pulmonary blood vessels, lymph vessels, & nerves • Cardiac Notch: Left lung only 39 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 40 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Lungs Lobes & Fissures • Right Lung – 3 Lobes: Superior, Middle, Inferior – 2 Fissures: Horizontal (Sup - Med), Oblique (Inf – Sup & Med) • Left Lung – 2 Lobes: Superior, Inferior – 1 Fissure: Oblique (Sup – Inf) 41 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Right Lung Left Lung 42 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 43 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Lungs Pleural Membrane • Serous membrane surrounding each lung • 2 Layers: – Visceral(Deep): Lines outer surface of each lung – Partietal (Superficial): Lines the walls of the interior thoracic cavity • Both layers are continuous with each other – Balloon like 44 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Lungs Pleural Space / Cavity • Space between the visceral and parietal pleural membranes (small) • Both pleural membranes secrete a lubricating fluid – Allows for frictionless breathing, easy sliding – Causes pleural membranes to adhere to the other 45 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 46 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill • Pneumothorax / Hemothorax Pleural cavity filled with air (pneumo-) and/or blood (hemo-) • Increases pressure on lungs – Difficulty breathing – May cause lungs to collapse due to high pressure • Lung no longer able to function properly 47 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Mechanics of Pulmonary Ventilation 3 Basic Steps: • Pulmonary Ventilation: – Inspiration and expiration of air between atmosphere and lungs • Alveolar (Pulmonary) Respiration: – Exchange of gases between air spaces of lungs and blood in pulmonary capillaries • Blood gains O2 and loses CO2 • Tissue Respiration: – Exchange of gases between blood in systemic capillaries and tissue cells • Blood loses O2 and gains CO2 48 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Mechanics of Pulmonary Ventilation “Inspiration” • Flow & exchange of air occurs due to pressure gradients (High Low) – Air moves into lungs: • Pressure in lungs < Pressure of Atmosophere – Air moves out of lungs: • Pressure in lungs > Pressure of Atmosphere 49 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Mechanics of Pulmonary Ventilation “Inspiration” Resting Pressure • Inside lung pressure = Atmosphere pressure – No air movement – Normal resting pressure 760 mm HG (sea level) • Changes in atmospheric pressure make it more difficult to breathe – i.e. Mountain climbing and Scuba diving 50 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Mechanics of Pulmonary Ventilation “Inspiration” Inspiration • internal lung pressure (intra-alveolar) lung size – Expand lungs – Intraalveolar pressure decreases below atmospheric pressure: • Air pushed into lungs by atmospheric pressure 51 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Mechanics of Pulmonary Ventilation “Inspiration” • Lung Expansion – Diaphragm muscle fibers contract • Innervation: Phrenic Nerve – Diaphragm moves inferiorly “flattens out” – Allows thoracic cavity to enlarge – Intraalveolar pressure falls ~2 mm Hg below atmospheric pressure – Air forced into lungs • Accounts for ~75% of air entering lungs – Obesity, pregnancy, etc.. Can restrict diaphragm from flattening out - difficulty breathing 52 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 53 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Mechanics of Pulmonary Ventilation “Inspiration” • Lung Expansion cont. – Also, external intercostal muscles contract • Other muscles contract during labored breathing: – Sternocleidomastoid, scalenes, pectoralis minor – Ribs & sternum undergo elevation – anterior-posterior dimension of thoracic cavity – Further intra-alevolar pressure – Allows more air to enter 55 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Mechanics of Pulmonary Ventilation “Expiration” • Reversal of pressure gradient – Intra-alveolar pressure > Atmospheric pressure • Normal expiration depends on 2 factors: – Normal recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration – Inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid 56 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Mechanics of Pulmonary Ventilation “Expiration” • Begins when inspiratory muscles relax • As the external intercostals relax the internal intercostals contract – – Ribs depress and diaphragm relaxes (elevates) Dome of diaphragm moves superiorly • lung space intra-alveolar pressure • intra-alveolar pressure forces air out • Additional muscles may assist pressure for forced expiration – Abdominal muscles (external & internal obliques, rectus & transverse abdominis) 57 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 58 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Asthma • Chronic inflammation of airway • Airway obstruction may be due to smooth muscle spasms in walls of smaller bronchi and bronchioles – Excessive mucus production 59 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Emphysema • Destruction of alveoli walls • Causes abnormally large air spaces that remain filled during expiration – Less surface area for gas exchange • Loss of elastic fibers in lungs – Loss of elastic recoil (expiration difficult) • Causes: – Long term smoking, air pollution 60 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Nasal Passage Where are we? Here We Go!!! The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Nasal Passage Nosehere are we? -This is where it the oxygen first enters your body and carbon dioxide leaves - Air comes into your nose and is filtered by tiny hairs and moistened by mucus in your nose The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Nasal Passage Pharynx and Trachea Where -This is where air passes from the nose we? are to the lungs - Pharynx gathers air after it passes through your nose and then the air is passed down to your trachea - Trachea is held open by incomplete rings of cartilage. Without these rings your trachea might close off and air would not be able to get to and from your lungs The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Nasal Passage Bronchial TreeWhere are -Trachea splits up into primary bronchi. The primary we?form the bronchi split up to bronchioles. - The bronchioles keep getting smaller and getting smaller and finally end with small air sacs (alveoli) The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Nasal Passage Alveoliare we? -Alveoli are tiny air sacs with air/oxygen when you breath in -Your alveoli are surrounded by many tiny blood vessels called capillaries - The walls of your alveoli are so thin that the oxygen and carbon dioxide can pass through them, traveling right into, or out of your blood stream The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Key Words • • • • • • • • Respiratory System- The group of organs in your body that are responsible for taking in Oxygen and breathing out the Carbon Dioxide which is the waste product of cellular respiration. Oxygen-The gas that your body needs to work and function. Carbon Dioxide- The waste product (gas) that is produced through respiration of people and animals. Nose/Nasal Cavity- Where Oxygen first enters your body. Tiny hairs help filter the air and air is moistened and heated by your nose. Your Nose leads into your Nasal Cavity. Mouth/Oral Cavity- Oxygen/air can also enter through your Mouth but it is not filtered. Your Mouth opens up into your Oral Cavity. Sinus- A cavity in the bones of your skull that helps moisten and heat the air that you breath. Pharynx/Throat- Gathers air from your Nasal and Oral Cavities and passes it to your Trachea. Trachea/Windpipe- A tube like pathway that connects your throat to your Bronchi Tubes and lungs. Air passes through it when it travels from the Pharynx to the Bronchi Tubes. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Key Words Cont. • • • • • • • • Bronchi Tubes- Each tube (one per lung) splits up into many smaller tubes called Bronchiole, like branches on a tree. Bronchiole- Keep splitting up until they reach your Alveoli. Respiratory Bronchiole- The air-tubes that are actually connected to the Alveoli. Alveolar Duct- The final tube, which is part of the Alveoli, that leads to the air-sacs. Alveolar Sac- Where the chemical change takes place and where blood cells pick up oxygen and drop off carbon dioxide. Alveoli- Tiny air-sacs at the end of your Alveolar Duct. They fill up with Oxygen and are surrounded by Capillaries. Capillaries- Tiny blood streams (around one cell wide) that surround your Alveoli. They take Oxygen out of our Lungs and replace it with Carbon Dioxide, which you later breath out. Diaphragm- The muscle membrane that helps you breath in and out by changing the pressure in your chest cavity. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill ...
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  • Summer '08
  • Zinder
  • Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina

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