MT1-review - GE 101 Mid Term Review(highlights not...

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Unformatted text preview: GE 101 – Mid Term Review (highlights, not exhaus=ve) 40 Mul=ple Choice Ques=ons Text: Chapters 1-­‐5 No calculators allowed or required Be on-­‐=me: exams collected promptly at 11:50 1 Chapters 1 & 2 •  Prelims: –  Earth’s spheres –  Weather vs Climate –  Graphs & Maps •  Composition of the Atmosphere •  Temperature Structure of the Atmosphere •  Atmospheric Pressure and Density 2 Earth’s Spheres Atmosphere: gaseous layer, surrounds Earth - redistributes heat & moisture - provides elements for life Hydrosphere: Liquid realm of the Earth - oceans, glaciers, water vapor, precip. Biosphere: Encompasses all living organisms Lithosphere – outermost, solid layer of Earth -­‐ layer of soil → nutrients -­‐ landforms provide habitat 3 Weather vs Climate (examples of phenomenon for each) 4 Graphs, Maps & Units Geographic coordinate systems: La=tude, longitude Units, derived units, special units 5 Temperature Measurements 6 Composition of the Atmosphere •  Radiatively & chemically active vs inactive gases •  Oxygen •  Carbon dioxide •  Nitrogen •  Ozone (O3) •  Stratosphere •  Troposphere •  Aerosols: suspended particulates 7 Composition of the Atmosphere •  In what parts of the atmosphere is ozone consider a beneficial and detrimental molecule, respec=vely? A)  B)  C)  D)  troposphere, stratosphere mesosphere, troposphere stratopause, tropopause statosphere, troposphere 8 Temperature, Pressure, Density vs Elevation 9 Atmospheric Pressure & Ideal Gas Law •  Define pressure? What does ideal gas law tell us: –  Rela=onships between temperature, density and pressure. 10 Chapter 3 •  Electromagnetic Radiation –  Radiation and temperature –  Solar radiation & longwave radiation –  Global radiation balance •  Geographic Variations in Energy Flow –  Insolation over the globe – annual mean, seasonal vs latitude –  Net radiation, latitude and energy balance –  Sensible and latent heat transfer •  The global energy system –  Solar energy losses in the atmosphere –  Albedo, counter-radiation and the greenhouse effect –  Global energy budgets of the atmosphere & surface 11 Global Energy Balance •  Processes and controls on amount of energy entering and leaving the Earth system 12 Electromagne=c Radia=on Source of energy loss/gain from/to Earth Solar, Terrestrial Spectrum; Dependence on temperature 13 Radia=on Interac=ons w/Atmosphere •  Shortwave Radiation from Sun (dark purple) •  Mostly transparent! •  Absorption of UV by O3 •  Absorption by CO2 and water vapor (H2O) shown as valleys •  Longwave Radiation from Earth (dark red) •  Absorbed by CO2 & H2O •  Creates greenhouse! 14 Electromagne=c Radia=on •  There are many values in the Earth’s spectra due to: A)  reflected light B)  the escape of light into space C)  the selec=ve absorp=on of longwave of radia=on in the atmosphere 15 Global Radia=on Balance Shortwave radiation absorbed by Earth’s atmosphere & surface is balanced by Longwave radiation emitted by Earth back to space. At global scale, long term: •  No net gain or loss of energy Thus, Earth’s “radiant” temp remains fairly constant. •  Varies w/solar inputs 16 Global Energy Budgets (Planetary, Surface, Atmosphere) 17 Global Mean Paeerns in Net Shortwave & Net Longwave vs La=tude 18 Chapter 4: Temperature Controls •  Earth’s rotation and orbit –  –  –  –  Earth’s rotation & Earth’s revolution around the Sun Solstice and Equinox Variations in insolation over the globe Solar heating of land and water •  Daily cycle of air temperature –  Urban heat island & factors that influence daily temperatures –  Daily insolation and net radiation •  Annual Cycle of air temperature –  Net radiation and temperature –  Land & water contrasts –  World patterns of air temperature & factors controlling air temperature 19 Earth’s Revolu=on Around Sun 365.242 days / orbit → Feb 29th every 4th year Counterclockwise mo=on from above •  Elliptical orbit •  Perihelion •  Closest to Sun •  Jan. 3rd •  Aphelion •  Farthest from Sun •  July 4th 20 Sols=ces & Equinoxes •  Sols=ces: Summer, Winter •  Earth inclined, Subsolar point ±23.5° N, S •  Circle of illumina=on touches Arc=c or Antarc=c circles •  Day length longer in summer hemisphere •  Equinoxes: Spring (vernal), Fall (autumnal) •  No =lt toward or away from Sun •  Subsolar point Equator at equator •  Circle of illumina=on passes through poles •  March 21, beginning of spring in northern hemisphere •  12 hours of daylight for everywhere on equinoxes 21 Tilt of Earth’s Axis of Rota=on •  Plane of Ecliptic •  Earth’s orbital plane • Polar axis tilted 23.5° from perpendicular to orbital plane •  Combine tilt with orbit • NH receives more insolation in summer • SH receives more insolation in NH winter •  Tilt & orbit create seasons • Not distance to Sun 22 Composition of the Atmosphere •  As the noon sun angle increases and solar zenith angle decreases, the amount of energy absorbed at the earths surface ______. A)  stays the same B)  decreases C)  increases 23 Geographic & Seasonal Varia=on in Solar Energy Insola=on – Incoming solar radia=on •  More intense at high sun angle; Less intense at low sun angle •  Same energy spread over a larger area 24 Varia=on in Seasonal Insola=on with La=tude 0 degrees 40 degrees N 90 degrees N 25 World La=tude Zones 26 Thermal Proper=es of Water 4 factors make water heat & cool slower than land 1. 2. Sun penetrates water 3. Heat capacity of water greater 4. Water mixes More evapora=on over water 27 Diurnal, Seasonal Paeerns in Net Radia=on and Surface Temperatures 28 World Temperature Paeerns: January Coldest in Siberia, northern Canada & Greenland Warmest in southern Africa and interior Australia Oceans warmer than land in northern hemisphere 29 World Temperature Paeerns: July Northern hemisphere continents have warmed dramatically in summer Aside from Antarctica, southern hemisphere not very cold in winter Note Maritime influence 30 Annual Range in Surface Temperatures 31 Chapter 5 •  Atmospheric Moisture & Precipitation –  3 States of water & hydrosphere –  Hydrologic cycle & global water balance •  Humidity –  Specific humidity, saturation specific humidity, relative humidity •  The Adiabatic Process –  Dry adiabatic rate & moist adiabatic rate •  Clouds –  Cloud forms –  Fog •  Precipitation –  Precipitation processes –  Precipitation types & measuring precipitation 32 Humidity and Latent Heat Specific Humidity Satura=on Specific Humidity Rela=ve Humidity Dew Point Latent heat 33 34 Cloud Forms (& types of precip) 35 36 Stability: DAR, MAR vs ELR Tendency of Atmosphere to Enhance or Suppress Ver=cal Mo=on 37 Composition of the Atmosphere •  The MALR is less than the DALR due to: A)  stays the same B)  latent heat energy releases C)  increases 38 Precipita=on Processes Mechanisms that generate ver=cal mo=on, cloud development, and precip 39 ...
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  • Spring '14
  • JamesR.Besancon
  • Atmosphere, Precipitation, gas  law

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