Reviewsheet,finalexam

Reviewsheet,finalexam - Biology 1320 Nerve Cells Review...

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Biology 1320 Review sheet for Final Exam Dr. Upchurch Nerve Cells Know what a neuron is. Be able to give the four specialized functions of neurons Neuron o Processor of information in animals Receives information Appropriate response o Four specialized functions of neurons Receive information from environment or other neurons Integrate information, then send out appropriate signal Conduct signal to its ending Transmit signal to other neurons o How it transmits information Electrical signals – within neuron Chemical signals – to other neurons o Nerve cells form nervous system Electricity transmits information from one part of the cell to another Chemicals send signals to other nerve cells Neuron Structure o Cell Body Nucleus Coordinates metabolic activities o Dendrites Highly branched Receive information Environment Other neurons 10s – 100s o Axon Long extension of cell Up to 1 m long – length depends on environment Carries electrical signal – like copper wire Myelin sheath that insulates axon whitish in color o Synaptic terminals Branched end of axon Swollen Send chemical signals to other cells Synapse Site where neurons communicate with each other Gap between cells Where nerve cells come together Know how nerve cells use electrical and chemical signals to transmit information How neurons generate electrical impulses o Change from negative to positive electrical charge o Positive charge travels length of axon Neuron at rest o Electrical charge difference between inside and outside o More negative ions on inside than outside Plasma membrane proteins Pump out Na+ Leave negative ions inside o Charge difference: voltage difference -40mV to -90mV Resting potential – a voltage difference across the plasma membrane that holds steady in the absence of outside stimulation
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Neuron fires: Action potential o Abrupt, brief reversal in the resting membrane potential of excitable cells o Charge difference reverses -40mV to +50mV Lasts several millisecons o How it occurs Membrane protein changes Na + free to pass through Na + concentration equalizes between outside and inside Gives inside a + charge Negative charge restored when protein closes Na + - Na + pumped out by active transport Know what a synapse is, and the meaning of the terms presynaptic neuron and postsynaptic neuron. Know how
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course BIO 1320 taught by Professor Farr during the Fall '08 term at Texas State.

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Reviewsheet,finalexam - Biology 1320 Nerve Cells Review...

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