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Reviewsheet,1320,Exam1 - Biology 1320 Concepts and Methods...

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Biology 1320 Review sheet for Exam 1 Dr. Upchurch Concepts and Methods Know the five major properties of life and why the cell is considered to be the basic unit of life Life carries its own instruction manual o DNA o Blueprints for entire organism o Basis for cloning Life reproduces o New organisms o Each has its own blueprint Life transforms energy o Metabolism – all the controlled, enzyme-mediated chemical reactions by which cells acquire and use energy to synthesize, store, degrade, and eliminate substances in ways that contribute to growth, survival, and reproduction o Energy from light or chemicals o Drives diverse chemical reactions inside cell o Animals eat (fungi) / feed on other organisms o Plants use photosynthesis (algae) Life is complex o Simple chemicals in environment o Complex chemicals and structures in organism o Requires energy – organism & environment not in chemical equilibrium Life responds to stimulus o Senses changes in environment o Makes compensatory changes o Maintains internal environment o Homeostasis – state in which physical and chemical aspects of internal environment are being maintained within ranges suitable for cell activities Cell is the basic unit of life because all of life’s properties do not exist at smaller levels of organization than the cell Know the hierarchy of life, starting with the atom and ending with the biosphere Atoms – make up molecules Molecule – make up organelles Macromolecule Organelle Cell Tissue – put together Organ – how put together Organ System Organism Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere Know what is meant by the principle of emergent properties Properties of higher levels are harder to predict by basing on lower levels Understanding cells does not mean understanding ecosystem and vice versa We need to study all levels of organization to understand life on Earth Know how energy and matter flow from one organism to another. Be familiar with the terms producer, consumer, and decomposer Energy and matter flow from one organism to another
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o Sunlight -> Plants -> Animals o Energy from one organism passed onto what eats it (applies to toxins too) Producers o Make their own food o Plants Consumers o Eat other organism o Herbivore – plant-eating animal o Carnivore – animal that consumes mostly flesh o Animals Decomposers o Break down dead organisms o Recycle chemicals o Fungi Know about the diversity of life Millions of kinds of organisms o Species – one kind of organism; of sexually reproducing organisms, one or more natural populations in which individuals are interbreeding and are reproductively isolated from other such groups o Genus – a grouping of species that are more closely related to one another in their morphology, ecology, and history than to other species at the same taxonomic level o Family, Order, Class, Phylum o Kingdom
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