BIO Ch 2- The Chemical Level of Organization.docx - 1...

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1Biology: Human Anatomy and PhysiologyChapter 2: The Chemical Level of Organization1.Identify, by name and symbol, the principal chemical elements of the human body.A.chemical elementThis is a substance that cannot be split into a simpler substanceEx. Oxygen,carbon,hydrate,nitrogen.B.chemical symbolplease help to identify the major elements.they are made up of one ortwo lettersto identify the element.Ex. oxygen (O), Calcium (Ca), Sodium (Na)C.major elementsThere are only four major elements. These constitute for 96% of the bodymass.1.Oxygen2.Carbon3.Hydrogen4.NitrogenD.lesser elementsInclude eight other elements that contribute to 3.6% of the body mass.1.Calcium:Hardness of bones and teeth, Blood clotting,release ofhormones,contraction of muscle.2.Phosphorus:Nucleic acids,ATP,bone in tooth structure3.Potassium:Positively charged particle in the intracellular fluid,neededfor action potential.4.Sulphur:vitamins and proteins5.Sodium:Found in the extracellular fluid,needed for maintainingwater balance,and generating action potentials.6.Chloride:negatively charged particle found in the extracellular fluid,needed for maintaining water b balance.7.Magnesium:needed for the action of enzymes.8.Iron:
2part of hemoglobin.E.trace elementsThese are an additional 14 elements the only account for 0.4% of the bodymass.Such as iodine2.Describe the basic structure of an atom, ion, molecule, compound and free radicle.A.atomUnit of matter that makes up a chemical element; consists of a nucleus(containing positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons) andnegatively charged electrons that orbit the nucleus.The dense central core of an atom is a nucleusNucleus:A spherical or oval organelle of a cell that contains the hereditaryfactors of the cell, called genes. A cluster of unmyelinated nervecell bodies in the central nervous system. The central part of anatom made up of protons and neutrons.1.ProtonsPositively charged2.NeutronsUnchargedB.subatomic particlesThese are components that compose atomsThere are only three types of subatomic particles1.Protons2.Neutrons3.ElectronsElectrons:Negatively chargedMove about in the large space surrounding the nucleus.a.electron shells:These are where the electrons move about1.First:never holds more than two electrons.2.Second:maximum of eight3.Third:can hold up to 18.C.atomic numberThis is the number of protons in the nucleusEach element will have a different atomic numbersD.mass numberThis is thesumof its protons and neutrons
3Ex.sodium has 11 protons and 12 neutrons,therefore it has a massnumber of 23.E.isotopesthese are atoms that have different numbers of neutrons therefore differentMass numbers.

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Term
Fall
Professor
Allan Kew
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