Sociology Review Sheet Midterm

Sociology Review Sheet Midterm - West and Zimmerman...

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West and Zimmerman “Doing Gender” Gender is a routine, methodical and recurring accomplishment. Sex is a determination made through biological criteria for classifying people as male / female. Sex category is achieved through application of sex criteria, displays that show one’s membership as a female or male. Gender is activity or behavior appropriate for one’s sex category. Gender activities emerge from and bolster claims to membership in a sex category. We presume that essential criteria exist and would be there if looked (genitalia) that provides the basis for sex categorization. Take for granted that sex and sex category are congruent, we assume that by knowing the latter we can deduce the first. We take appearances at face value unless we have special reason to doubt. Doing gender consists of managing occasions so that the outcome is seen and seeable as gender-appropriate Women can be seen as unfeminine but that does not make them unfemale. Standardized social occasions provide places where people evoke “essential male and female natures”. Sports – manliness. Selective dating / mating: males will be stronger, bigger. Many situations are not sex categorized to begin with but any social encounter can be pressed into service in the interests of doing gender. (Women asking more questions, fill more silences in casual talk) Gender differences or the sociocultural shaping of “essential female and male natures,” achieve status of objective fact. They are normal features of persons and provide rationale for differing fates of women and men. Social change must happen at institutional, cultural levels of sex category and the interactional level of gender. Buss, Shackelford…. . “Half Century of Mate Preferences…” Mate preferences are greatly influenced by cultural change. Widespread use of birth control reduces unwanted pregnancy and therefore emphasis on chastity in mate preference. AIDS has opposite effect. As women become more independent and financially secure, relative importance of a male’s resources would go down. Historically, women more than men value economic resources in a romantic partner because they were more dependent in the past. 1939 – 1996: Men and women increased importance of mutural attraction, love, education, sociability and good looks. General decrease in valuation of refinement, neatness, chastity. Men had an increase in their value of similar education background and good
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course SOC 216 taught by Professor Beisel during the Fall '08 term at Northwestern.

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Sociology Review Sheet Midterm - West and Zimmerman...

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