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Unformatted text preview: Native Americans in Louisiana Before and After European Contact Pre-Contact Native Americans • 10,000 to 6,500 b.c. Paleo-Indians • 6,500 to 2,000 b.c. Meso-Indians (shift due to environment change; would have been hunting large animals) • 2,000 b.c. to 1700 a.d. Neo-Indians (do things like build mounds) Poverty Point • Located in West Carroll Parish, Louisiana • Constructed around 1500 b.c. • At that time, Poverty Point was the largest earthwork site in what is now America • Its mounds are notable for their age, size, and complexity • Mound building cultures had existed in Louisiana since 4000 b.c. but none built a site as large and complex as the group at Poverty Point • Located near: Bayou Macon: good choice because there is an abundant amount of food. Important trade and transportation hub. Native American Groups and Locations at the time of Contact (page 16-21) • Atiakapas • Caddoan • Tunica • Natchez • Mushhogean • Chitmacha Impact of European Arrival • Alters previous alliances • Alters territorial understandings and locations [move to get away from Europeans or to be closer to Europeans] • Alters the biological balance (disease: influenza and smallpox) • Alters the material culture of the region [given more access to different trade goods, alcohol, jewels, etc.] Native Americans through European Eyes 1 • Almost everything historians know about Native Americans we know about from European records and observation. We lack first-hand knowledge about what Natives were thinking or feeling. • 2 Examples o Alexandre De Batz (in Louisiana 1729 to 1759)—did drawings and paintings. We got a sense of what the Natives lives were like. We begin to see diversity (African Americans were probably brought in) o Antoine-Simon Le Page Du Pratz : works on a plantation and is an engineer. Frontier Exchange Economy • Concept developed by historian Daniel Usner • Allows us to see historical events from a Native American perspective even though we have to rely on records written by colonizers • The term is “mean to capture the form and content of economic interaction between colonizers and colonized” • Frontier not simply “an interracial boundary across which advanced societies penetrated primitive ones” • Helps us to understand “how people of different cultures related to and influenced each other in daily life” The Natchez Massacre 1729 • As an example of how the Frontier exchange economy worked in practice • As an example that Native peoples were not “simple” savages...
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