RNR- Test 2

RNR- Test 2 - February 13, 2008 Test 2 Notes Ecology Life...

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February 13, 2008 Test 2 Notes Ecology Life in the Biosphere Energy flows thru ecosystems -light from sun goes thru atmosphere/stratosphere -plants & bacteria use this to make food -herbivores eat the plants -carnivores eat those herbivores -then everyone/everything dies & becomes a mushroom -everytime Energy & Earth’s Ecosystems -these reflect sunlight: -Clouds -Ice -Suspended Particulate Matter (from volcanoes, etc) -these trap heat into the atmosphere: -CO 2 -methane—20 times worse than CO 2 -Water Vapor -Nitrous oxide -clouds -hydrofluorocarbons -perfluorocarbons -sulphar hexafluoride Global Warming -a little increase in solar radiation -the model temperature and actual observed temperatures have been fairly in line with each other when all forces were taken into account -as greenhouse gases increased, the temperature increased as well CO2 Data and Projections Temperature Data and Projections Effects of Global Warming -with higher CO2, hurricanes will decrease in number but increase in category -deforestation—sea levels will rise -decreasing crop yields in places with high population growth -increase in tropical storms and intensity -increase in diseases -fisheries affected
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-Arctic Ice Mass—ice reflects sunlight energy and as ice caps shrink the sunlight will be absorbed into the atmosphere and by water -many ice caps around the world contain methane, which is 20 times worse than CO2 as a greenhouse gas World Response to Climate Change -UN Framework Convention on Climate Change—1992 -Kyoto Protocol—1997, 7% reduction in US, not ratified -many reasons for US not ratifying -China and India were exempt at that time -Emissions trading -if you don’t exceed your emissions standards, you as a country can sell your excess to other countries that have exceed or already met their limits -Annual Carbon Emissions by Region -US & Canada are leading this -Total Emissions in 2000 -US, Europe, Canada, Russia, Australia high -Projected and targeted CO2 emmissions in 2010 Global Warming Unanswered Questions -not sure about the role of oceans -the oceans are clear and blue because it doesn’t have nutrients -Tasmania—dropped nutrients in one area, plankton increased but eventually dissipated -clouds -Ice caps—what is that going to do? -probably going to make it worse for polar bears and penguins -Forest loss -we are putting more CO2 into the atmosphere and we are cutting down the things that use that CO2—trees Life in the Biosphere – Nutrients Any element or compound needed for life -Macronutrients—needed in high levels -Oxygen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Phosphorus -Micronutrients—needed but in small amounts -Zinc, Copper, Magnesium, Iron, Iodine -many of these are toxic at high levels -Plant Nutrients -primary—N, P, K -secondary—Ca, Mg, S -tertiary—Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Mo, B, Cl Nutrients Recycle through Ecosystems
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-this thing eats that thing and gets nutrients from it, etc. -eventually everything dies and fungi break it all down
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RNR- Test 2 - February 13, 2008 Test 2 Notes Ecology Life...

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